Society of Automotive Engineers

Society of Automotive Engineers PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Participants include international automobile and air conditioner system manufacturers, component and equipment suppliers, refrigerant manufacturers, ...

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Society of Automotive Engineers

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Slide 1:Society of Automotive Engineers Improved Mobile Air Conditioning Cooperative Research Program

Improved HFC-134a Refrigerant Systems

Improved Mobile Air Conditioning (IMAC) Announced April 22, 2004 A comprehensive industry-government cooperative research program to responsibly manage all aspects of lifetime vehicle air conditioner environmental performance Develop and demonstrate improved vehicle air conditioners using HFC-134a refrigerant Add to customer value Improve recovery and recycling of refrigerant during service and vehicle end-of-life disposal Participants include international automobile and air conditioner system manufacturers, component and equipment suppliers, refrigerant manufacturers, MAC service providers and the Environmental Protection Agency

Slide 3:Current 27 Corporate Sponsors

Arkema (Autofina) Audi Behr   BMW DaimlerChrysler   Delphi  Denso  DuPont  Ford   Fujikoki General Motors Goodyear Honeywell   Ineous Fluor Japan Fluor Mfg Assoc Manuli Modine Nissan Parker Hannifin Sanden Schrader-Bridgeport Solvay TI Automotive Toyota Trelleborg Viking Plastics Visteon

Slide 4:Project Goals

IMAC Core Team 1 50% Leakage Reduction Team 3 30% Load Reduction Team 2 30% Efficiency Improvement Demonstration Vehicles 2005/2006 Team 4 Containment During Service & Disposal

Slide 5:IMAC Program Objectives

Reduce “direct” HFC-134a refrigerant emissions that leak from MACs Reduce “indirect emissions”, which are emissions related to the burning of fuel needed to power the air conditioner Reduce any other emissions during the manufacture, installation, operation, servicing and disposal of the system Provide a directly comparative engineering evaluation Existing and improved technologies Vehicle and system design Servicing of systems

Slide 6:Project Organization

Tier One Leakage Efficiency Overall Project Management Financial Oversight Funding strategy Educate management Members: Tier 1 suppliers Tier 2 suppliers OEM’s MACS and Members EPA Refrigerant Suppliers Other Members: OEM’s Tier 1 suppliers NREL EPA University’s Other OEM CORE GROUP OEM Advisors GM Ford D-C To advise in case of proprietary technologies SAE Industry Members: OEM’s Tier 1 suppliers NREL University’s Other Members: OEM’s Tier 1 suppliers EPA MACS and members Other Vehicle Load Service Tier Two

Slide 7:IMAC Project Teams

Slide 8:Team 1 Refrigerant Leakage Reduction

Goal: Reduce HFC-134a Mobile Air Conditioning System refrigerant direct emissions by 50%

Slide 9:Team 1 Progress to Date

Identified 4 current production vehicles to baseline for refrigerant leakage rate Dodge Caravan (dual system) Ford F150 Toyota Camry GM W Car

Slide 10:Team 1 Progress to Date

Evaluated mini-shed tests to establish refrigerant system direct emissions Evaluating assembly plant “noise factors” regarding assembly of system components free of contamination, damage, etc.

Slide 11:Team 1 2006 Plan

Develop SAE Standard for component and system mini-shed test · Develop SAE Standard for reclaim procedure to determine actual vehicle charge level Evaluate new low emissions technologies per standard

Slide 12:Team 1 Description of Technologies

Improved crimps Improved fittings Compressor shaft seal and body seals Hose permeation Material integrity-tubing Reduced number of joints TXV Transducer/switches Service valves/caps Manufacturing/Assembly specifications Leakage Test Procedure Robust Manufacturing/Assembly Procedures

Slide 13:Team 2 System Efficiency

Goal: Improve system COP by 30% over the enhanced R134a system that was demonstrated in the SAE Phase 1 Alternative Refrigerant Cooperative Research Program (ARCRP) Demonstrate equivalent performance

Slide 14:Team 2 Deliverables

Demonstrate COP improvement on a System Test Stand Demonstrate equal performance in a Vehicle Tunnel SAE J Standard for Measurement of System COP using the System Test Stand Approach SAE J Standard for Annualized Climate Calculation of System Power Loss Relative Cost / Benefit Analysis: Cost will be relative on a 1-10 scale Benefit will be COP improvement over the enhanced R134a ARCRP system

Slide 15:Team 2 2005 Plans

System Stand: Improved sub-cooling control (condenser) Improved superheat control (evaporator) Improved compressor efficiency Internal (suction/liquid) heat exchangers Vehicle: Sub-cooling and superheat algorithm development A/C performance demonstration

Slide 16:Team 2 2006 Plans

System Stand: Next generation condensers (pending availability) Next generation evaporators (pending availability) Alternative compressor designs (pending availability) “Best of the Best” combination Vehicle: Continue system development A/C performance demonstration Develop J Standards Develop Cost/Benefit Matrix

Slide 17:Team 2 Progress to Date

Condenser sub-cooling control study shows potential for 20-30% improved COP at low loads (achieving control in a vehicle system is an open issue) Evaporator superheat control study shows potential for 20% improved COP at low loads Improved efficiency compressor study shows potential for 15% improved COP (climate weighted) Achieving the 30% improvement goal is promising but the individual effects may not be additive

Slide 18:Team 3 Vehicle Load Reduction

Goal: Demonstrate vehicle level technologies that reduce the cooling load by 30%

Slide 19:Team 3 Progress to Date

Tested the impact of various technologies on soak temperatures Power ventilation device Solar reflective glazing Lightweight insulation Sunscreen for windshield Plan to test additional technologies Lightweight seats Solar reflective paints Developing a computer model at the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) to estimate a technology’s impact on time to comfort and power consumption

Slide 20:NREL vehicle Model

CAD Thermal Comfort Vehicle Glazing Solar Radiation Cabin Thermal/Fluid Air Conditioning Fuel Economy & Emissions Cooling Capacity & A/C Power Occupant Thermal Comfort

Slide 21:Team 3 Deliverables

Procedure for evaluation of technology Develop a ranking of approximate cost/benefits for various technologies Evaluation of technologies in laboratory and field · Demonstration vehicle for 2006 Phoenix Meeting · Communication and education materials

Slide 22:Team 4 Reduction in Refrigerant Loss During Servicing

Goals: Evaluate and Recommend Improvements for Service Tools, Equipment (New or Revised Standards) and Service Procedures Identify, Quantify and Propose Remedies for Refrigerant Losses at Service, Vehicle End of Life Quantify and Address Losses from One-Way Refrigerant Containers Produce Educational Materials and Conduct Outreach to Reduce Refrigerant Emissions

Slide 23: Team Four – Service Progress & Plans

Leak detection tools, procedures Writing standards for next generation of tools Detection at 4 grams per joint/year (Current standard 14 grams) Probe distance 3/8” (now ¼”) ‘Real world’ testing for standard

Slide 24: Team Four – Service Progress & Plans

Service equipment, procedures Testing has shown that current recovery equipment/procedures leaves refrigerant in system Developing standard for next generation of equipment Different recovery procedures needed for different types of systems

Slide 25: Team Four – Service Progress & Plans

3. Flexible coupled hose assemblies Conduct lab testing to evaluate field coupled assemblies for leakage Develop a cost-effective means of field evaluation of assemblies

Slide 26: Team Four – Service Progress & Plans

Analytical tool to evaluate service procedures SAE Service Technology Group Activity Focus on leak detection; diagnosis 5. Refrigerant mass balance Data collection to identify and quantify the sources of all lifetime R-134a emissions

Slide 27: Team Four – Service Progress & Plans

6. Vehicle end of life Partnership with Automotive Recyclers Association Raise awareness in this sector Develop strategies to improve vehicle EOL refrigerant recovery

Slide 28:Actual/Forecast Funding vs. Original Plans

Original 2004 announcement: “over $3 million in cash and in-kind contributions” Program on track to surpass initial funding plan

Slide 29: Status After One Year

All 4 teams are operational and making progress Industry participation is high The program is on track to meet scope, funding and technical targets

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