Approaches to measuring SHS exposure: Italy & Austria Before and After Study. Giuseppe Gorini, Epidemiologist, MD Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Unit - CSPO , FLORENCE, ITALY e-mail: email@example.com. Italian smoking ban - I.
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Giuseppe Gorini, Epidemiologist, MD
Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Unit - CSPO , FLORENCE, ITALY
in indoor spaces including hospitality venues and workplaces, unless they have:
Fines: 27.5-275 €; 10 times higher for subjects responsible of enforcing the law in each public place.
Since August 2005, owners of hospitality premises were no more responsible to enforce the legislation.
In the survey conducted in 2005 amongst the owners of 1,641 hospitality premises, <1% reported to have built smoking areas, because of the high cost due to the tight standards on air quality.
Second-hand smoke exposure markers - 1
Nicotine: Tobacco-specific, sensitive personal monitor or environmental monitorflow rate: 2.4 mL/min gas chromatography (GC/MS) in Barcelona Labmean values in the sampling perioddetection limit: 0.01 µg/m3
[Gorini, J Occup Environ Med, 2005]
Aerocet 531 counts individual particles using scattered laser light and calculates the equivalent mass concentration.
All five important mass size ranges (PM1, PM2.5,PM7, PM10, and TSP) are displayed
NOT tobacco-specific (air pollution outdoor, cooking,heating systems indoor)
It’s possible to measure in real time (e.g., minute by minute)
Met One ® Instruments, USA
-82% in Milan
-73% in Trieste [Ruprecht, Tominz & Invernizzi,
Epidemiol Prev, 2006]
[Nebot, Tob Control, 2005;
Gasparrini, Epidemiol Prev, 2006].
Results: Italy (Florence, Belluno), before & after - 1
Results: Italy, before & after - 2
Results: Italy, Discos & Pubs, before & after
Results: Italy, Restaurants, before & after
Results: Italy, post-ban measurements in Milan, Turin, Naples
Results: Italy, post-ban measurements in Milan, Turin, Naples - 2
Cigarette Sales in Italy (millions of Kg)
Source: Tobacco Observatory Newsletter, Ref Editor, Milan, Italy
The Newsletter is funded by BAT, the buyer in 2003 of the former Italian state-owned tobacco manufacture, and owner of 30% of cigarette market share in Italy, second only to Philip Morris.
The Newsletter reported that the lowest level of cigarette sales since 1998 in Italy was recorded in 2005.
Considering that in 1990s a significant amount of cigarettes arrived in Italy through smuggling (black market), cigarette sales in 2005 were the lowest recorded in 30 years.
Outdoor Winter Smoking Covered Eating Places
[Gallus, Prev Med, 2007 (in press)]
Moshammer H, Neuberger M. Wien University
Nebot M, Lopez MJ, Serrahima E. Public Health Agency of Barcelona
Galeone D. Ministry of Health, Rome
Sbrogiò L, Tamang E, Marcolina D, Venice
Gasparrini A, Fondelli MC, CSPO, Florence
Giordano L, Charrier L, Piccinelli C, Coppo A, Di Stefano F, D’Elia P, Molinar R. CPO, Turin
Invernizzi G, Ruprecht A. National Cancer Institute, Milan
Russo Krauss P. Health Authority of Naples