Ch 13  Marine Life
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Ch 13 Marine Life Producers and consumers Trophic level and food web Limiting factors Taxonomy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Ch 13 Marine Life Producers and consumers Trophic level and food web Limiting factors Taxonomy . Living organisms Energy Entropy Photosynthesis Chlorophyll Producer Glucose = food = stored chemical energy 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2

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Ch 13 Marine Life Producers and consumers Trophic level and food web Limiting factors Taxonomy

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  • Ch 13 Marine Life

    • Producers and consumers

    • Trophic level and food web

    • Limiting factors

    • Taxonomy


  • Living organisms

    • Energy

    • Entropy

  • Photosynthesis

    • Chlorophyll

    • Producer

    • Glucose = food = stored chemical energy

      • 6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2

      • Carbon dioxide water glucose oxygen


  • Primary productivity in the ocean

    • =bound carbon in gC/m2 yr

  • Biomass production/ yr ~ 10 x carbon content of primary producer/ yr

Diatom Coscinodiscus


Satellite view of chlorophyll content of ocean as estimate of primary productivity


  • Autotroph

    • Primary producer

  • Heterotroph

    • Primary consumer

      • herbivore

    • Secondary consumer

      • carnivore

    • Top consumer

Shark

Photo from http://www.tahiti.pictures-pacific.com/bora-bora/shark.jpg


Trophic pyramid

Trophic level


Food web


  • Essential for marine life

    • Essential elements: carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen = 99% of living mass

    • Light

    • Heat

Nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen gas N2Nitrate NO3-

Nitrite NO2-Ammonia NH3

Ammonium NH4+DON = dissolved organic nitrogen


  • Nutrient

    • Nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus, potassium

    • Silicate, iron, copper, manganese, zinc

  • Limiting nutrient or other factor


  • Visible light penetration in water

    • Turbidity

    • Photic zone

    • Aphotic zone


  • Euphotic zone

    • photosynthesis

  • Disphotic zone

    • Visible light only


Endothermic walrus

Ectothermic fish

  • Temperature

    • Metabolic rate

    • Ectothermic

    • Endothermic


  • Dissolved gas

  • pH

  • Hydrostatic pressure

Photo from http://www.bslwater.com/images/daf_for_water/bubbles.jpg


  • Salinity

    • Diffusion

    • Osmosis

    • Active transport (reverse osmosis)


  • Osmosis

    • Hypertonic

    • Isotonic

    • Hypotonic

hypertonic hypotonic isotonic


Limit on cell size


Ocean zones

  • Pelagic (horizontal) zones

    • Neritic

    • Oceanic

  • Benthic (bottom) zones

    • Littoral

    • Sublittoral

    • Bathyal

    • Abyssal

    • Hadal


Fig. 3.3

  • Charles Darwin 1859

    • Evolution of organisms

    • Natural selection


Natural selection


horse

panda

Vestigial structures and other imperfections

whale

snake


Converging evolution

Iterative evolution


  • Prokaryote

  • Eukaryote

  • Taxonomy

    • Kingdom


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