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Mgt 240 Lecture. Computing at ND: Operating Systems and Software January 18, 2005. Miscellaneous. Seating charts Lecture homework help session Thursday 7-9pm L050 – Andy Grau Homework for next week – Working with the operating system. Today in Lecture. Review of hardware reading material

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Mgt 240 Lecture

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Mgt 240 Lecture

Computing at ND:

Operating Systems and Software

January 18, 2005


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Miscellaneous

  • Seating charts

  • Lecture homework help session Thursday 7-9pm L050 – Andy Grau

  • Homework for next week – Working with the operating system


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Today in Lecture

  • Review of hardware reading material

  • Operating system software

  • Application software with a focus on Excel


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What Tasks Do Your Perform on your Computer When You Start Each Lab Session? What Software Do You Use When You Do Your Work in the Lab?


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Software Used in Excel Portion of Mgt 240 Lab

  • Operating System

    • Microsoft Windows XP

    • Previous versions of Microsoft Windows

    • Computer Platform Report

  • Microsoft Excel 2003


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Operating Systems Software


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Operating System Software – What is It?

  • Used to control your computer

    • Starts up computer

    • Controls file storage

    • Controls processing

    • Controls hardware and software loaded on computer

    • Controls network connections

  • Provides the interface with which you interact

    • Responsible for desktop interface (graphical user interface)

  • Whenever the computer is on, the operating system is working


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Operating System Software – Where is It Stored?

  • My Computer, Hard Drive, Windows Folder

    • Stored on hard drive

  • Look at the Properties of the Windows Folder

    • Takes up a lot of hard drive space

    • Many different support files and folders


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Operating System Software – Where is it When It’s Running?

  • Windows Task Manager - Ctrl-Alt-Del

    • Applications currently running tab

      • This is where you see what applications are currently running on your computer

      • All of the currently running programs are allocated space in memory (RAM) and processor time

      • OS not listed


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Operating System Software – Where is it When It’s Running?

  • Processes tab

    • Each currently running application and the operating system are made up of processes that are assigned space in memory and processor time

    • 16 of 30 currently running processes on the computer I used to prepare this lecture were devoted to the operating system

    • Total memory usage: 58, 216 KB

      • How many MB’s is this?

      • How many MB’s of RAM do you have on a typical PC?


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Operating System Software – Where is it When It’s Running?

  • Performance Tab

    • Totals for

      • Physical memory (amount of RAM installed on your computer)

      • Kernel memory (amount of memory devoted to the operating system)

      • Commit charge (amount of memory being used by both applications and operating system)


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The Windows Operating System is Big!

  • It takes up a lot of room on your hard drive

  • It takes up a lot of room in memory

  • It takes up processor time

  • That’s why new versions of Windows have recommendations regarding processor speed, memory size, and hard drive size


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Operating System Alternatives

  • Most PC’s come with Windows installed on them (if they’re not Mac’s!)

  • A lot of people don’t like Windows. They think it’s

    • Too big

    • Not secure enough

    • Has too many bugs (mistakes in its programming that create problems for users)

    • Too expensive

  • You have to have some operating system running your computer

  • What can you do?

    • There are alternatives!

      • One of them is Linux


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Linux

  • Free

  • Based on version of Unix (another operating system that is often used on more powerful computers)

  • Can come with different interfaces

    • Graphical user interface (like Windows)

    • Command-line

  • Many free applications designed to work with the Linux operating system

  • Not supported at ND

    • That means that no one at OIT will help you with it

      not that you can’t use it


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Operating System Software – Commonly Used Features

  • File management

    • Every time you open, copy, or save a file the operating system is involved

  • Controlling your computing environment

    • You can adjust everything from your screen saver to your keyboard sensitivity through the control panel – your gateway to many operating system functions


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Operating System Software – File Management

  • The operating system is in charge of all facets of file management

    • It tells the computer what to do about physical file management

    • It provides the interface for you to logically manage files


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Physical File Management

  • The operating system assigns memory (RAM) to applications that are currently running on your computer and keeps track of those memory locations (we saw this in the task manager)

  • The operating system assigns storage space and keeps track of where files and applications are stored on your hard drive


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Properties of Drives, Folders, and Files

  • Look at properties of C: drive. It shows

    • What kind of file system the operating system uses: NTFS

      • Used to provide physical addresses for your files and applications on your hard drive

    • How much of your hard drive is used/unused


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Properties of Drives, Folders, and Files

  • C: drive properties (cont.)

    • Gives you the option to

      • Clean up your disk (compress old files, delete temporary files, and unused program files)

      • Compress entire contents of disk to free up space

      • Allow indexing of files for fast search

      • De-fragment drive (puts files with parts stored separately together to speed up access)

      • Share drives and files

      • Set access rights

      • Set security features (encrypt information)


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Logical File Mangement

  • Allows you to create, arrange, and store files in a way that makes sense to you

  • It reflects human thinking about file relationships and doesn’t have anything to do with the physical storage of the files in memory or on the hard drive

  • In Windows the logical file management tool is windows explorer


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Windows Explorer

  • Allows you to see the logical organization of your drives and files

  • You can

    • View your files in a number of different ways (View menu)

    • Arrange the files in a folder in a number of different ways

    • Create new folders

    • Move or copy existing files and folders

    • Set folder options


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Operating System Software – Controlling Your Computing Environment

  • In the Windows operating system, the control panel allows you to exert control over many aspects of your computing environment

  • Open the control panel from the start menu

    • You see a number of icons that let you set various parameters on your computer

  • You will be working with the control panel in your hands-on homework for this lecture


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Application Software


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Application Software Types

  • Personal

  • Group

  • Enterprise


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Personal Application Software

  • Allows you to perform specific kinds of tasks, for example

    • Word processing

    • Internet browsing

  • Written for specific operating systems

    • MS Office won’t run on Linux

  • Stored on your computer’s hard drive

  • Allocated memory space and processor time by operating system when you start them up


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Personal Application Software at ND

  • OIT maintains a web page that provides information about the software available on campus

  • The University buys site licenses for many software applications so you can download them onto your campus computer for free.

  • Here is a list of software that can be downloaded or purchased for reduced cost at ND

  • OIT also provides support (meaning you can call the help desk if you have problems) for many software applications


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Microsoft Campus Agreement 3.0

  • Allows students to purchase the following software for $45 each:

    • Microsoft Windows XP Pro OS Upgrade

    • Microsoft Office XP Professional or Office 2003 Professional

    • Office X or Office 2004 for Mac

    • Microsoft Visual Studio.net Pro 2003

    • Microsoft FrontPage 2003


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Application Software Available on Cluster Computers at ND

  • OIT maintains a list of application software available in the various clusters around campus


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History of Spreadsheet Application Software for PC’s

  • A Brief History of Spreadsheets

  • VisiCalc (late 1970’s)

    • Harvard B-School student wanted better way to do his accounting homework (1978)

    • Wrote a program that became the first spreadsheet

    • Reference card instructions for VisiCalc

  • Lotus 1-2-3 (early 1980’s)

    • Developed by Mitch Kapor

    • Added integrated charting, plotting and database capabilities

    • First spreadsheet application widely used in business

  • MS Excel (mid 1980’s)

    • Developed first for the 512 K Mac

    • Graphical user interface

    • Dominates spreadsheet application market share today


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Microsoft Excel Application Software

  • Software application designed for data analysis

  • Developed by programmers at Microsoft

  • Compiled and burned onto cd’s (Open in NotePad – binary code is unintelligible)

  • Sold with documentation at stores

  • Often purchased as part of the Microsoft Office Suite along with Word, Powerpoint, Access, and FrontPage

  • Licensed to organizations for a certain number of users


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Microsoft Excel Application Software

  • Excel 2003 requires

    • 233 Mhz or faster processor

    • 128 MB RAM

    • 150 MB of available hard drive space

  • You install the software from the cd included with your purchase

  • It is stored on your hard drive as excel.exe

  • It is loaded into memory when you start it up – can see it in task manager


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Software Suites

  • Advantages of buying software suites like MS Office

    • For you

      • Work seamlessly together

      • Less expensive than buying separately

      • Consistent interface across applications

  • For Microsoft

    • Capture more of your business


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Groupware

  • Lotus Notes/Domino

  • Microsoft NetMeeting

  • Designed to assist communication and collaboration

    • Online meeting rooms

    • Central, online document archives

    • Project management tools

    • Video conferencing support

  • NetMeeting


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Enterprise Application Software


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Use of Integrated Supply Chain Management Software


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Selected Enterprise Resource Planning Vendors


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Proprietary Software

  • Proprietary

    • Pros

      • Get exactly what you need

      • Involvement in development gives more control over the results

      • More flexibility to make modifications

    • Cons

      • Development effort can take a lot of resources and a long time

      • May stretch in-house IT resources and make maintenance difficult

      • More risk that features and performance will not be adequate


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Off-the-Shelf Software

  • Off-the-Shelf

    • Pros

      • Initial cost lower because development costs spread over a large number of customers

      • You can analyze the features and performance of the application to see if it meets your basic needs

      • Application quality high because of testing with customer firms

    • Cons

      • May contain features that organization doesn’t need and will never use

      • May not contain needed features resulting in modification expenses

      • May not match current work processes and data standards


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Application Software Alternatives

  • Application Service Providers

  • Pay ASP a monthly fee for use of applications that they host and maintain

  • Salesforce.com pioneering software as a service


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