Introduction to simulating radio propagation models and cooja arm
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Introduction to Simulating radio propagation models and COOJA ARM. One radio…. REFRACTION. REFLECTION. DIFFRACTION. … receiving a radio signal Typically 4 different categories Problem: What happens to the radio signal? (And how is sound quality affected?). SCATTERING.

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Introduction to simulating radio propagation models and cooja arm l.jpg

Introduction toSimulating radio propagation modelsand COOJA ARM


One radio l.jpg

One radio…

REFRACTION

REFLECTION

DIFFRACTION

  • … receiving a radio signal

  • Typically 4 different categories

  • Problem:

    • What happens to the radio signal?

    • (And how is sound quality affected?)

SCATTERING


Wsn radio model types l.jpg

WSN radio model types

  • Unit Disk Graph

    • COOJA’s Standard Radio Medium

  • Bit Error Ratio (BER)

  • Collected statistical data (or empirical models)

  • Ray tracing


Cooja arm l.jpg

COOJA ARM

  • Advanced Radio Medium

  • “Advanced” when compared to “Standard” :)

  • Radio propagation models introduction

  • How ARM works


Wiki s definitions l.jpg

Wiki’s definitions

  • Radio Propagation

    “... is a term used to explain how radio waves behave when they are transmitted, or are propagated from one point on the Earth to another.”

  • Radio Propagation Model

    “... characterization of radio wave propagation as a function of frequency, distance and other conditions.”


Empirical models l.jpg

Empirical models

  • Lots of different models exist

  • Outdoor

    • City, Terrain, Rain, Earth curvature

    • Okumura model built using data collected in Tokyo

  • Indoor

    • ITU Model for indoor Attenuation

    • Log Distance Path Loss Model

    • Typical parameters: frequency, distance, number of floors, coefficients tuned to different environments etc.

  • Above models based on empirical data


Analytical approach l.jpg

Analytical approach

  • Based on ray tracing

  • Calculates multi-path effects

  • Used in COOJA ARM


Small scale vs large scale l.jpg

Small-scale vs. Large-scale

  • Small-scale effects

    • Sum of many received signal from different directions

    • Often Gaussian random

    • Scattering

  • Large-scale effects

    • Shadowing

    • Reflections


Free space propagation model l.jpg

Free Space Propagation Model

  • (FSPL)

  • Predicts signal strength for LOS paths

Antenna gains

Wavelength

Transmitted vs. received power

Distance


Ray tracing in arm l.jpg

Ray tracing in ARM

  • 2D positions

  • Supports attenuating obstacles

    • Only rectangles

  • Refractions

  • Reflections

  • Diffractions

  • Potential support:

    • Scatterings


Using arm l.jpg

Using ARM

  • Registers two plugins

    • Changing formula parameters

    • Visualizing radio coverage

  • Listens to all radios in the simulation

    • Transmitted power

    • Antenna gains

    • Packet lengths

    • SNR threshold

    • (Channel)


Formula viewer l.jpg

Default valueMay be radio specific

Frequency: ~900 MHz

Formula Viewer


Formula viewer13 l.jpg

From radio specification

Default valuesMay be radio specific

Formula Viewer


Formula viewer14 l.jpg

From radio specification

Default valuesMay be radio specific

Formula Viewer


Formula viewer15 l.jpg

FSPL mentioned earlier

Fixed “penalty” constants

FUTURE:Should be replaced by angle dependent formulas

Maximum values used by ray tracer

May become very time-consuming =)

Formula Viewer


Formula viewer16 l.jpg

Property of obstacle type(wood, glass, metal)

Formula Viewer


Area viewer l.jpg

Area Viewer

  • Shows radios, obstacles and channel propagation


Area viewer18 l.jpg

Area Viewer

  • Obstacles are set by analyzing the background image


Area viewer19 l.jpg

Area Viewer

  • User may track ray paths from a transmitter to a point

    • Uses the current formula settings


Area viewer20 l.jpg

Area Viewer

  • Show surroundings of transmitter:

    • Signal strength

    • SNR ratio

    • Probability of reception

    • Delay spread


Area viewer21 l.jpg

Area Viewer

Received signal strength vs. Probability of reception


Future work l.jpg

Future work

  • Validate models

  • Parameter estimation / Model calibration

    • From actual measurements


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