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# Introduction to - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Introduction to Simulating radio propagation models and COOJA ARM. One radio…. REFRACTION. REFLECTION. DIFFRACTION. … receiving a radio signal Typically 4 different categories Problem: What happens to the radio signal? (And how is sound quality affected?). SCATTERING.

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### Introduction toSimulating radio propagation modelsand COOJA ARM

REFRACTION

REFLECTION

DIFFRACTION

• … receiving a radio signal

• Typically 4 different categories

• Problem:

• What happens to the radio signal?

• (And how is sound quality affected?)

SCATTERING

• Unit Disk Graph

• Bit Error Ratio (BER)

• Collected statistical data (or empirical models)

• Ray tracing

• “Advanced” when compared to “Standard” :)

• How ARM works

“... is a term used to explain how radio waves behave when they are transmitted, or are propagated from one point on the Earth to another.”

“... characterization of radio wave propagation as a function of frequency, distance and other conditions.”

• Lots of different models exist

• Outdoor

• City, Terrain, Rain, Earth curvature

• Okumura model built using data collected in Tokyo

• Indoor

• ITU Model for indoor Attenuation

• Log Distance Path Loss Model

• Typical parameters: frequency, distance, number of floors, coefficients tuned to different environments etc.

• Above models based on empirical data

• Based on ray tracing

• Calculates multi-path effects

• Used in COOJA ARM

• Small-scale effects

• Sum of many received signal from different directions

• Often Gaussian random

• Scattering

• Large-scale effects

• Reflections

• (FSPL)

• Predicts signal strength for LOS paths

Antenna gains

Wavelength

Distance

• 2D positions

• Supports attenuating obstacles

• Only rectangles

• Refractions

• Reflections

• Diffractions

• Potential support:

• Scatterings

• Registers two plugins

• Changing formula parameters

• Listens to all radios in the simulation

• Transmitted power

• Antenna gains

• Packet lengths

• SNR threshold

• (Channel)

Frequency: ~900 MHz

Formula Viewer

Formula Viewer

Formula Viewer

FSPL mentioned earlier

Fixed “penalty” constants

FUTURE:Should be replaced by angle dependent formulas

Maximum values used by ray tracer

May become very time-consuming =)

Formula Viewer

Property of obstacle type(wood, glass, metal)

Formula Viewer

• Shows radios, obstacles and channel propagation

• Obstacles are set by analyzing the background image

• User may track ray paths from a transmitter to a point

• Uses the current formula settings

• Show surroundings of transmitter:

• Signal strength

• SNR ratio

• Probability of reception