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Convergence of Previously Disparate Functions. Electronic Document Interchange. Electronic funds transfer (EFT). Electronic data interchange (EDI). Corporate digital library. Information Sharing. Marketing, advertising. Electronic publishing. Electronic Commerce.

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Convergence of Previously Disparate Functions

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Convergence of Previously Disparate Functions

Electronic Document Interchange

Electronic funds transfer

(EFT)

Electronic data interchange

(EDI)

Corporate

digital

library

Information Sharing

Marketing, advertising

Electronic

publishing

Electronic

Commerce

Sales, customer support

Collaborative work

E-mail

Fax

Electronic messaging


Attributes of Electronic Commerce

Business/Retail

Business/Industrial

Government

Request for quote procurement

models of the Electronic Commerce

Acquisition Program Management

Office(ECAPMO) Electronic

tax filing Economic census

Reporting

Just-in-time (JIT) ordering

Evaluated Receipt settlement(ERS)

Reference model for health care

Automatic replenishment

Efficient Customer Response(ECR)

Storefront E-catalog

Computer telephone integration

Interactive TV

Bulletin board system

Automatic teller machine

Kiosks

Business

Models

Privacy Enhanced Mail

Secure HyperText Transport

Protocol(S-HTTP)

Electronic stamps

Secure Socket Layer(SSL)

Secure Electronic Transaction

(SET)

Security

RSA

Triple DES

Key escrow

Data Encryption Standard (DES)

RSA

X12.58

Internet

Cable

Service bureau

Value-added networks

Value-added networks

Value-added banks

Internet

Direct connections

Value-added networks

Value-added banks

Internet

Communication

Infrastructure

Wide Area Information

Server (WAIS)

HyperText Markup Language

(HTML)

Info access to graphics, video,

audio, and text

EDIFACT

ANSI ASC X12

UPC/EAN

Industry guides

Info access to text

NIST

ECAT Implementation

Convention (C)

Info access to text

Data

Management


Scope of Electronic Commerce

On-line

Computer-

aided

collaboration

On-line

databases

Computer

conferencing

and bulletin

boards

Workflow

E-mail

EDI

EFT

Store

and

forward

Computer-to-computer

automated exchanges

Computer-aided

people-to people


  • Business

  • Global competition

  • Disregulation/regulation

  • Competition from new and

  • nontraditional players

  • Blurring of industry lines

  • Societal

  • Demand for convenience

  • personalization, quality

  • and value

  • Global interactions

  • Technology’s proliferation

  • into consumer markets

  • Marketing

  • Fragmentation of markets

  • Declining effectiveness of

  • mass media

  • New marketing and dist.

  • channels/interactive media

  • Technology

  • Microprocessor price/perf.

  • Open system & client/server

  • Increasing volumes of data

  • Internet

  • Data warehousing, MPP,

  • OLAP

Changes and Drivers of EC


Electronic Marketplace

Electronic Marketplace Extends Reach

Traditional EC

External

Systems

and

Processes

Small and Medium

Size Businesses

Consumers

ISPs OLSs

Commercial

Partners

Banks

Certif.

Auth.

Credit

Cards

E-Cash

VANs ISPs OLSs

Internal

Systems

and Processes

External Network Interfaces/Security

Interfaces

Purchasing

Sales &

Mktg.

Invoice

Messaging

Customer

Support

Human

Resources

Ordering

Payment


Digital

Library of

Document/Data

Servers

Local or

Company-Specific

Data

Information

Retrieval

Third-Party

Information

Processing

Tools/Services

Web

Browser

Data and

Transaction

Management

Browser

Extensions

Secure

Messaging

Electronic

Payment

Servers

Electronic Commerce Architecture

Third-Party Services

Client Browser

Web Server Functions


Different Types of Electronic Payment Systems

Payment Type

Description

Open exchange

The most widely used payment method today. Credit card information is provided

to a merchant via E-mail or Web page response without encryption or protection.

Encrypted transmission of information between buyers and sellers over the Internet

providing authentication by means of common software ( such as security-

enhanced Web browsers.

Secured linkage or

presentation

A trusted intermediary service that provides credibility for both buyer and seller,

manages Internet-based transaction accounts, and either provides for the transfer of

funds between accounts or for the authentication of the transaction with banks or

credit card clearing facilities.

Trusted third party

A network-based replacement for the paper check that uses existing inter-bank

clearing systems.

Digital check

Digital cash

The use of digital tokens that represent secure currency (without double spending)

and allow direct buyer-to-seller transfer of value.


Web Payment Solutions

Visa

MasterCard

First Virtual

Credit-based

IBM InfoMarket

Clickshare

NetBill

CyberCash credit card

CheckFree credit card

FSTC Electronic Check

Netcheque

CyberCash Check

Debit-based

CyberCash Cybercoins

DigiCash

NetCash

Digital currency

Citibank

<$5

Transaction Value >$50


Electronic Commerce Standards

Standards

Area

Internet and the World Wide

Web

HTML, HTTP, CGI, TCP/IP, FTP, SMTP, MIME, SSL, SGML, URL

Value-Added Networks

Asynch, Bisynch, X.25, SNA, APPN, X.400, X.435

Electronic Data Interchange

(EDI)

ANSI X12, UN/EDIFACT

Image Data

GIF, JPEG

Financial Payments

ANSI X12.4 - #820, NACHA’s CCD+, CTX, SET, JEPI

Security

RSA, DES


Internet Standards and Protocols for Electronic Commerce

Name

Description

Organization

Formal Standards and Protocols

TCP/IP

Underlying network transport protocols

IETF

SGML

Markup language for text manipulation

ISO, W3C, SGML Open

HTML

SGML application for hypertext manipulation; language most Web

pages use

W3C, SGML Open

HTTP

Protocol for transferring hypertext documents on the Web

W3C

URL

Enables information addressing on the Web

W3C

File Transfer Protocol for information exchange

IETF

FTP

MIME

Multimedia E-mail standard and a building block for HTTP

IETF

Security Sockets Layer that allows for more secure

communications; also a product from Netscape

IETF

SSL

Core Internet protocol for sending and receiving E-mail

IETF

SMTP

Common Gateway Interface

CGI

W3C


Internet Standards and Protocols for Electronic Commerce

Name

Description

Organization

Vendor De Facto Standards

Netscape Server API

NSAPI

Netscape

Sun

Java

Programming language and environment for the Web

ActiveX

Microsoft products that enhance Internet Web pages, such as

allowing for the inclusion of moving objects

Microsoft

SET

Secure Electronic Transaction Standard

MasterCard and Visa


Key Electronic Commerce Infrastructure Providers

Sector

Vendors

Electronic Market Managers

AT&T Corp., CompuServe, GEIS, IBM, MCI, Communications

Platform/Service Providers

Digital Equipment Corp., HP, IBM, Silicon, Graphics, Sun

Server/Software Developers

BroadVision Inc., Microsoft, Netscape, Open Market, Spyglass Inc.

CheckFree, CyberCash, DigiCash, Digital, First Virtual Holdings Inc.,

Harbinger Corp., MasterCard, Premenos, Sterling Commerce Inc., Visa

Component Providers


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