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Designing self-management programs to increase appropriate social and academic work skills. Presented by Anne W. Todd March 2004 awt@uoregon.edu. Self-Management. Critical skills for succeeding in school & work environments Social Skills Communication Skills Literacy Skills

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Designing self-management programs to increase appropriate social and academic work skills

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Designing self management programs to increase appropriate social and academic work skills l.jpg

Designing self-management programs to increase appropriate social and academic work skills

Presented by Anne W. Todd

March 2004

awt@uoregon.edu


Self management l.jpg

Self-Management

  • Critical skills for succeeding in school & work environments

    • Social Skills

    • Communication Skills

    • Literacy Skills

    • Organizational Skills

    • Job Specific Skills


Self management defined 3 criteria l.jpg

Self-Management Defined (3 criteria)

1. Two behaviors

  • self-management behavior

  • target behavior

    2. Both behaviors are performed by the same person

    3. Self-management behavior changes the target behavior


Function based self management l.jpg

Function-based self-management

  • Design support based on functional behavior assessment information

    • Specifically, teach self-management skills and routines

    • Define, teach, provide feedback by acknowledging/ correcting, monitoring, using the skill, use the data to redefine and recycle the process

  • Make data-based decisions

    • Start with the questions: what do you want to know?

      • Is there progress?

      • Does program need to be revised?

      • Who needs to know?

      • When will we re-group?

    • Create data collection forms for efficiency in recording and summarizing


Why self management skills are pivotal l.jpg

Why self-management skills are "pivotal"

  • Self-management is the foundation of prosocial behavior

  • Our society is incapable of maintaining positive behavior via external reinforcers alone

  • Self-management skills facilitate generalization

  • Self-management skills facilitate development of new, prosocial skills


When to use self management procedures l.jpg

When to use self-management procedures

  • to increase motivation

  • to increase predictability and consistency

  • to facilitate memory or exaggerate relevant cues (sequences)

  • to decrease physiological arousal

  • to decrease dependence on staff/family (increase independence)

  • to improve generalization and maintenance


Self management strategies l.jpg

Self-management Strategies

  • self-monitoring

  • self-delivered instructions & self-talk

  • self-relaxation routines

  • self manipulations of preceding events

  • self-delivered rewards

  • (self-delivered corrections)


Signaling the use of self management strategies l.jpg

Signaling the use of self-management strategies

  • Signals for self-management are critical

    • Use natural signals as much as possible

    • Infuse ‘temporary’ signals if the natural signal isn’t often enough

      • Whatever you add, be prepared to fade out as the student succeeds

      • Auditory vs. visual

    • Tallies, checks, pluses, rating scales


Recording self management behavior l.jpg

Recording self-management behavior

  • What is the purpose of recording?

    • To self-monitor

      • Instructional prompts

      • Visual monitoring of progress

      • To increase predictability and accountability

    • To determine if behavior is more socially acceptable?

    • To determine if work work/routine is completed?

    • To determine if work is accurate?

  • Be creative & efficient

    • Make is simple, doable, easy to use

    • Use the data

  • Examples


Slide10 l.jpg

Sunday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

4th

decide on topic

5th

start outline

6th

7th

8th

finish outline

9th

10th

write introduction

11th

day off!

12th

13th

write Paragraph 1

14th

15th

16th

writeparagraph 2

17th

18th

write paragraph 3

19th

20th

21st

write

conclusion

22nd

edit first draft

23rd

complete first draft

24th

references

25th

finish references

26th

day off!

27th

28th

edit final copy

29th

make cover page

31st

30th

Turn in

5th grade research project calendar


Slide11 l.jpg

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

Me

T agree?

Me

T agree?

Me

T agree?

Me

T agree?

Had materials

Kept my cool

Total +’s

I am a self-manager


Slide12 l.jpg

+

+

0

+

+

+

+


Slide13 l.jpg

Tuesday

Jan. 23, 2001

1/23/01

8

9

music

Science

PE


Meet felix l.jpg

Meet Felix

A snapshot:

7th grader

Traumatic brain injury

(hit by car in 2nd grade)

Lives with parents & siblings

Articulate, reads at 2-3 grade level

Loves video games & soccer

Aggressive toward property & others

when frustrated


Slide15 l.jpg

Felix

Wait for attention

Delayed attention

New curr.

Indep work time

No attention

Physically difficult tasks

Intellectually difficult tasks

Whining, grabbing arm, interrupting, hand in face

Teacher attention

Raise hand

Ask for help


Instruction for felix to learn self management routine l.jpg

Instruction for Felix to learn self-management routine

  • Nine 25 minute instructional session

  • Teach to have materials

  • Teach to keep cool

  • Teach to self-monitor for both skills

  • Teach routine to self-monitor & check for accuracy & go to next period

  • Teach to ‘take time’ routine


Slide17 l.jpg

Self-management Card

1. Every period with 4 pluses= 1 raffle ticket

2. Every day with 24 pluses = soda


Felix s progress for 81 school days l.jpg

Felix’s progress for 81 school days

  • Had materials for classes 78 of 81 school days or 96% of time

  • Kept cool 75% of days (61 days of 81 total)

    • Only 2 of 81 days had difficulty for 3 or more of 6 periods

    • 14 days, only one tough period of the 6

  • Accuracy of self-assessment was 100% for 91% of the 81 days

    • Accuracy of self-assessment never fell below 80%

    • The last 46 days of data collection, accuracy of self-assessment was 100% consistently!


Meet kyle l.jpg

Meet Kyle

A snapshot:

4th grader at the time

Has diagnosed learning disabilities

Gets extra support in reading & math

In regular classroom 90% of time

Loves to draw & is good at it

Taunts and teases peers


Slide20 l.jpg

Kyle

Do work & get along

Teacher praise

Distracts peers, doesn’t pay attention, incomplete work, plays with materials

Group activities & indep. work

Lack of attn at home

Peer and teacher attention

Self-manage: on-task, task completion,

Keep hands, feet & objects to self


Instruction for kyle to learn self management routine l.jpg

Instruction for Kyleto learn self-management routine

  • Three 15 minute instructional sessions to master use of self-management system

    • Signal for self-monitoring was the word ‘check’ heard through a tape recorder

      • 3,4 and 5 minute intervals

    • Discrimination for on-task and not on-task

    • Practice recording during simulations


Slide22 l.jpg

Kyle % of time on task

Self-

Self-

Base-

Base-

Self-

Mgmt 1

Mgmt 2

line 1

line 2

Mgmt 3

100

!

!

90

!

80

!

!

!

!

70

!

60

!

!

!

!

50

Class period A

!

40

!

!

30

!

20

Percentage of intervals of problem behavior

!

!

10

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

0

100

90

80

!

!

70

60

!

Class period B

!

!

50

40

!

30

20

!

!

!

!

10

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

0

Session:

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

56

60

63

68

73

Date:

1/14 2/3 2/11 2/14 2/19 2/25 2/27 3/6 3/13 3/18 4/2 4/8 4/17 4/24 4/30 5/20

10 Minute Class Session Probes


Slide23 l.jpg

Work Completion for Kyle

Base-

Self-

Self-

Base-

Self-

line 2

mgmt1

mgmt 3

line 1

mgmt 2

24

!

22

!

!

20

!

!

18

!

!

16

!

!

14

!

!

12

!

Cumulative work completion

!

10

!

!

8

!

!

6

!

!

4

!

!

!

!

2

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

!

0

Session:

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

56

62

68

73

Date:

1/14 2/3 2/11 2/14 2/19 2/25 2/27 3/6 3/13 3/18 4/2 4/8 4/24 4/30 5/20


Meet hannah l.jpg

Meet Hannah

A snapshot:

4th grader

Has Down’s Syndrome

Enjoys music, especially the Backstreet Boys

Loves to hang out with peers

Disruptive in class

Inappropriate on the play ground


Instruction for hannah l.jpg

Instruction for Hannah

  • Thirteen 30 minute instructional sessions to master use of self-management system

    • instruction to use tape recorder

    • signal for self-monitoring when the word ‘check’ heard through a tape recorder

      • 3,4 and 5 minute intervals

      • 7, 8, 9 minute intervals

    • Instruction for on-task and not on-task discrimination

    • Instruction for zero and plus discrimination

    • Instruction to raise hand when seeing the hand cue

    • Instruction & practice recording during simulations


Self management behaviors l.jpg

Self-management Behaviors

  • Preparing for class & work

    • Time management

      • Define and teach the routines!

        • arrive on time

        • with necessary materials

        • complete tasks in timely manner

    • Appearance & attitude

      • enter in a pleasant manner, be respectful

      • be prepared to work

      • ask for help when needed


Self management behaviors31 l.jpg

Self-management Behaviors

  • Participating in class & work

    • follow rules and guidelines

    • stay on-task/ time management

    • do work as assigned

    • ask for help when needed, in an endearing way

    • be respectful and cooperative


Self management behaviors32 l.jpg

Self-management Behaviors

  • Wrapping up and leaving class & work

    • be respectful and cooperative

      • organize/ clean up materials and workspace

      • take necessary materials/ homework

    • Time management

      • wrap up work station & tasks on time

      • leave on time


References for felix kyle and hannah studies l.jpg

References for Felix, Kyle, and Hannah Studies

  • Brooks, A., Todd, A. W., Tofflemoyer, S., & Horner, R. H. (2003). Use of a Functional Assessment and a Self-Management System to Increase Academic Engagement and Work Completion.Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, Vol 5. (3). pp. 144-152. Pro-Ed.

  • Todd, A.W., Horner, R. H., & Sugai, G. (1999). Effects of Self-monitoring and Self-recruited Praise on Problem Behavior, Academic Engagement and Work Completion in a Typical Classroom. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 1(2), 66-76. Pro-Ed.

  • Todd, A., Horner, R., Vanater, S., & Schneider, C. (1997). Working Together to Make Change: An Example of Positive Behavioral Support for a Student with Traumatic Brain Injury.Education and Treatment of Children. Vol 20 (4), 425-440. Pressley Ridge Schools.


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