defining standard operating procedures for shea processing
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Defining Standard Operating Procedures for Shea Processing. Peter Lovett WATH/ Pro Karité. Multiple markets. Traditional butter Cultural & locational variation Edible, cosmetics, medicinal, soap, etc Non-traditional edible Cocoa Butter Improvers, margarines, etc

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multiple markets
Multiple markets
  • Traditional butter
    • Cultural & locational variation
    • Edible, cosmetics, medicinal, soap, etc
  • Non-traditional edible
    • Cocoa Butter Improvers, margarines, etc
  • Non-traditional personal care
    • Pomades, soap, pharmaceuticals, etc
multiple methods
Multiple methods
  • Pits – smoked – kneaded-in-water
  • Piles – boiled – fried – kneaded-in-water
  • Piles – boiled – expeller
  • Dried raw – sand-roasted – boiled-in-water
  • Dried raw – pressed
quality parameters
Quality Parameters
  • Free fatty acids
  • Peroxide values
  • Unsaponifiable content & profile
  • Melting point
  • Humidity
  • Impurities
  • Colour
consistency
Consistency!

SOP x

SOP y

2

Free Fatty Acid

%

1

0

Batch #

Batch #

production cost vs market price
Production cost vs market price
  • Processing inputs
    • Firewood, water, labour, etc
  • Technology costs
  • Extraction rate
  • Refining cost
  • Market demand
e g cost vs price
E.g. cost vs price

Drier

Grinding mill

Pressing machine

Cost

Sell

Profit

500

600

100

550

600

50

700

750

50

1000

1200

200

standard operating procedures
Standard Operating Procedures
  • Need step-by-step process
  • Understanding of each stage
    • Timing
    • Effect on quality
    • Extraction rates
  • Cost of each stage
  • Expected ‘quality’ at a given ‘consistency’
traditional sops
Traditional SOPs
  • E.g. SOP 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, etc
  • To include range of traditional methods
  • Expected`
    • Degraded oil
    • Wide ‘consistency’ range
    • Cultural demand
    • Large market
mid range sops
Mid-range SOPs
  • Produces a standard product
    • good consistency
  • Medium oil quality, e.g. FFA 3-4%
  • Probably further refining expected
    • Soap making, deodorisation, etc
  • Ease of production at low cost
  • E.g. kernels for export, national soap production
top range sops
Top range SOPs
  • High set-up cost
    • training, driers, presses, etc
  • Niche markets
  • High consistency
  • High “Quality @ Quantity” (e.g. <1% FFA)
  • Certification probably demanded by market
  • Cosmetics, pharmaceuticals
key questions quality
Key questions - Quality
  • Provenance profiles
  • Unsaponifiables
    • Effect of accumulation & aqueous extraction
  • Cause of peroxide formation during boiling
  • Levels of PAHs & alternative methods
  • Economic, efficient drying methods
market driven
Market driven
  • Offer quality parameters
  • Assess market demand
    • quality, quantity & price
  • Finalise quality standards
  • Certification methods
  • Networks to allow free market access
  • Offer SOPs to producers & buyers…
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