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Central Asia Regional Assessment on Decentralization. Glen Wright FDI Workshop Istanbul November 29-30, 2006. Governance Indicators. Governance Indicators. Governance Indicators. Governance Indicators. Governance Indicators. Governance Indicators. Governance Indicators.

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Central Asia Regional Assessment on Decentralization

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Central Asia Regional Assessment on Decentralization

Glen Wright

FDI Workshop

Istanbul

November 29-30, 2006


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Governance Indicators


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Governance Indicators


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Governance Indicators


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Governance Indicators


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Governance Indicators


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Governance Indicators


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Governance Indicators

Bertelsmann Transformation Index

RankingRanking

20032006

Kazakhstan6166

Kyrgyzstan6978

Tajikistan100102

Uzbekistan93103


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Obstacles to Decentralized System

  • Legacy of Soviet Communist Party System

  • Sudden Soviet Collapse

  • Rising Nationalism/Ethnic/Religious Fundamentalism

  • Local Loyalties/Clans/Ethnic Mix


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Legal Frameworks

  • Kyrgyzstan

    • Basic Framework with contradictions

    • Failure to Implement

    • New effort/State Commissions

    • New Budget Structure Proposed 2007

    • Issues

      Admin-Territorial Division

      Functional Assignments

      Intergovernmental Transfer Formula


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Legal Frameworks

  • Tajikistan

    • Outdated legal framework from 1990s

    • Public Administration Reform Strategy

    • Presidential Working Groups

    • Issues

      • Role of Jamoat

      • Law on Local Government


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Legal Frameworks

  • Kazakhstan

    • Framework from Early 1990s

    • Power of Akim

    • Weak Maslihkat Councils

    • Issues

      • Transformation of Central Apparatus

      • Drafting of New Local Government Framework


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Legal Frameworks

  • Uzbekistan

    • Framework from Early 1990s

    • Strong Central Apparatus

    • Khokim Control

    • Role of Mahallas

    • Issues

      • Transformation of Central Apparatus


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Functional Assignments

  • Common Problems of the CA Countries

    • Dichotomy of Laws and Realities

    • Confused Assignments to Each Tier

    • Size of Local Units

    • Kyrgyzstan/Tajikistan

      • Some Progress Through Donor Support

    • Kazakhstan/Uzbekistan

      • Little Progress or Interest


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Financial Resources

  • Common Problems of the CA Countries

    • Many Sources/Little Fiscal Capacity

    • Central Control Over Tax Rates and Base

    • Reliance on Shared Taxes

    • Unstable Revenue Allocations

    • Poor Tax Administration Capacity

    • Little Progress in Any of the CA Countries


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Intergovernmental Transfers

  • Common Problems of the CA Countries

    • Continued System of Bargaining/Negotiation

    • Budget Balancing Main Objective

    • No Objective or Equalizing Formula Criteria

    • Some Progress in Kyrgyzstan


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Local Government Associations

  • Kyrgyzstan

    • Association from Mid-1990s

    • 2 Main Associations Presently

    • Active in Policy Development

  • Tajikistan

    • Association of Small Cities

  • Kazakhstan/Uzbekistan

    • Difficult Environment for NGOs

    • Strength of Akims


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FDI Potential Support Areas

  • Support for Policy Analysis Development

  • Local Government Professional Associations


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