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Bell Ranch: Integrated Seedstock and Commercial Programs. Genetics . Mule Camp produces 40 bulls each year for the commercial enterprise. Weaning. Selection is for the weaning weight of the calves  205 days of age. Question.

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Bell Ranch: Integrated Seedstock and Commercial Programs

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Bell ranch integrated seedstock and commercial programs l.jpg

Bell Ranch: Integrated Seedstock and Commercial Programs

Genetics

Mule Camp produces 40 bulls each year for the commercial enterprise.


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Weaning

Selection is for the weaning weight of the calves  205 days of age


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Question

If we select for weaning weight and increase the growth potential of our cattle:

What will happen to the mature size of our cow herd?


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Animal Science Introductory Courses Quail Project


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Project

Selection for 6 week weight.

3 lines: High growth, Low growth, Control

5 generations of selection


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Selection

Selection was based on the individuals own performance.

h2 of 6 week weight about 50%

The accuracy of the selection criteria is 0.70


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Lecture 23

Correlated Response


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Question:What happens to other traits when selection is for one trait?


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Question:What happens to other traits when selection is for one trait?

y

x


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Question:What happens to other traits when selection is for one trait?

select on x

y

Selection Differential for Y

x


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Correlated Response


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Correlated Response

  • change in one trait resulting from selection on another trait


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Correlated Response

  • change in one trait resulting from selection on another trait

  • response can often be undesirable

  • example:turkeys


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Correlated Response

  • change in one trait resulting from selection on another trait

  • response can often be undesirable

  • example:turkeys

  • response is based on genetic covariance between traits

  • BVx,BVy


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Correlated Response

Why does a genetic covariance exist?


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Correlated Response

Why does a genetic covariance exist?

1)Pleotrophy --one gene influences more than one trait (permanent)


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Correlated Response

Why does a genetic covariance exist?

1)Pleotrophy --one gene influences more than one trait (permanent)

2)Linkage --genes influencing two traits physically linked (temporary)


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Correlations

Positive verses negative correlations

Beneficial verses antagonists correlations


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Correlated Response

bBVy on BVx =BVy,BVx

2BVx


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Correlated Response

bBVy on BVx=BVy,BVx

2BVx

= change in BVy per unit change in BVx


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Correlated Response

bBVy on BVx =BVy,BVx

2BVx

= change in BVy per unit change in BVx

CRy = bBVyon BVx G (per generation)

=bBVy on BVx g (per year)

x

x


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Revisit the Quail Project


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Correlated Response


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What is my dogs name?


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Superior

3

Huron

2

Ontario

1

Dog = Rowdy


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Selection

versus

Mating Systems


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Selection

Objective:change gene frequency


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Selection

Objective:change gene frequency

-- Change in frequencies for quantitative traits is slow. --


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Genetic Merit =


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Genetic Merit =

value of individual genes (selection)


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Genetic Merit =

value of individual genes (selection)

+

value of gene pairs (mating systems)


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Genetic Merit =

value of individual genes (selection)

+

value of gene pairs (mating systems)

+

value of combination across loci (mating system)


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Mating Systems


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Mating Systems

  • Planned matings of selected parents


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Mating Systems

  • Planned matings of selected parents

  • Objective:optimize gene combinations


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Mating Systems

  • Planned matings of selected parents

  • Objective:optimize gene combinations

  • Three Example Systems:

  • Inbreeding

  • Line breeding

  • Cross breeding


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Inbreeding

-- the systematic mating of related animals


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Inbreeding

--the systematic mating of related animals

generation

Full SibsAB

CD0


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Inbreeding

--the systematic mating of related animals

generation

Full SibsAB

CD0

EF1


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Inbreeding

--the systematic mating of related animals

generation

Full SibsAB

CD0

EF1

GH2


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Inbreeding

Each generation animals become more related to each other, hence each generation the inbreeding coefficient becomes larger.

Remember that the inbreeding coefficient is

½ the relationship of the parents.


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Inbreeding

Fx

GenerationSelfingF.S.H.S.

0 0 0 0


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Inbreeding

Fx

GenerationSelfingF.S.H.S.

0 0 0 0

1 .5.25.125


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Inbreeding

Fx

GenerationSelfingF.S.H.S.

0 0 0 0

1 .5.25.125

2 .75.38.220


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Inbreeding

Fx

GenerationSelfingF.S.H.S.

0 0 0 0

1 .5.25.125

2 .75.38.220

5 .97.67.450


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Inbreeding

With a line, animals become more similar (uniformity), because gametes of any individual become more similar.


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Inbreeding

With a line, animals become more similar (uniformity), because gametes of any individual become more similar.

Line123



F.S.F.S.F.S.


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Inbreeding

Between lines individuals become more dissimilar (homozygous at different loci for different alleles).

Line123



F.S.F.S.F.S.


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  • Inbreeding

  • Using the inbreeding coefficient at generation t, we can estimate:

  • Within line variation, 2BVW(t)

  • Between line, 2BVB(t)

  • Total genetic variation, 2BVT(t)


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Inbreeding

2BV0BV variance at generation zero

Ftinbreeding coefficient at generation t


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Inbreeding

2BV0BV variance at generation zero

Ftinbreeding coefficient at generation t

After t generations:

2BVW(t) = (1 - Ft) 2BV0


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Inbreeding

2BVB(t) = 2Ft 2BV0

and

2BVT(t) = 2BVW(t) + 2BVB(t)

= (1 - Ft) 2BV0 + 2Ft2BV0

= (1 + Ft) 2BV0


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Remaining Schedule

Four lectures left:

QTLdiscovery in dogs (Raluca)

Mating systems: line breedingandcrossbreeding (Raluca)

Heterosis

Captive Animal Breeding Programs


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1

2

3


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