2010 public use microdata area proposed criteria
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2010 Public Use Microdata Area Proposed Criteria. Overview. Brief History Proposed Criteria Discussions New Challenges Since 2000 Proposed Criteria – Changes for 2010 Proposed Guidelines. Brief History.

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Overview l.jpg
Overview

  • Brief History

  • Proposed Criteria Discussions

  • New Challenges Since 2000

  • Proposed Criteria – Changes for 2010

  • Proposed Guidelines


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Brief History

  • PUMS first created for the 1960 Census and were published for state geography (i.e., one PUMS per state)

  • For the ’60, ’70, and ’80 censuses, the following geographies were used for the publication of PUMS data:

    Divisions

    States

    Metropolitan areas/Non-metropolitan areas

    Urban/rural/central cities/urban fringe

    County groupings


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Brief History

  • PUMAs first defined for the 1990 Census

    • 5%, 3% and 1% PUMS were provided for corresponding PUMAs with a minimum population threshold of 100,000

    • 5% and 3% PUMS were published for the same PUMA geography:

      • nested within states

      • built on counties, places, and tracts

    • 1% PUMAs:

      • could cross state boundaries

      • built on metropolitan areas/non-metropolitan areas and central cities/non-central cities


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Brief History

  • 2000 PUMAs

    • 5% and 1% PUMS were provided for corresponding PUMAs that nested within states

    • 5% PUMAs were primarly aggregations of counties, MCDs (in New England states), and census tracts. Incorporated places of 100,000 or greater could be defined as a PUMA as well.

    • 5% PUMAs had a minimum

      population threshold of 100,000

    • 1% PUMAs, “super PUMAs”, were

      aggregations of 5% PUMAs, with

      a minimum population threshold of

      400,000


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Proposed Criteria Discussions

  • PUMA working group

    • Multi-divisional working group in which the issues for 2010 PUMAs were vetted and the proposed criteria were initially approved

    • Divisions represented on the working group:

      ACSO GEO

      CLMSO HHES

      DSSD POP

    • Meetings occurred in Spring – Summer 2009

  • 2009 State Data Center annual meeting

  • Professional conferences


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New Challenges for 2010 PUMAs

Annual publication of data for PUMAs:

ACS PUMS and ACS estimates

  • PUMAs that experience population decline are problematic

  • PUMAs built on entities whose boundaries change frequently over time (especially incorporated place boundaries) are problematic


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Overview: Proposed Criteria

  • Standard PUMAs (one level)

  • State-based

  • POW PUMAs and MIG PUMAs

  • Minimum population threshold of 100,000 throughout decade

  • Counties and standard tracts as building blocks

  • Contiguity

  • Federal American Indian reservation/off-reservation trust land (AIR/ORTL) relationship

    An asterisk (*) indicates there is a proposed change from the 2000 criteria


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PUMATypes

  • Only one level of “standard” PUMA (PUMA 5 from Census 2000)

  • Place of work PUMAs (POW PUMAs) and migration PUMAs (MIG PUMAs) are proposed to be county based, consisting of:

  • a single PUMA for county-based PUMAs

  • a combination of adjacent tract based-PUMAs so that together the PUMAs compose one or more complete counties

PUMA 1

PUMA2

CountyB

Boundary Symbology

County

Tract-based PUMA

CountyA

PUMA 3

POW PUMA & MIG PUMA

POW PUMA I and MIG PUMA I


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Population Thresholds

  • Each PUMA must contain a minimum population of 100,000

  • The minimum population must be met at the time of delineation and throughout the decade

    • Define each PUMA currently experiencing/expected to experience population decline above the minimum threshold to accommodate the decline throughout the decade

    • PUMAs that fall “significantly below” the 100,000 person threshold will be combined with one or more adjacent PUMAs for ACS PUMS


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PUMA Composition: Use of Census 2010 Counties and Census Tracts as Building Blocks

  • All PUMA types (standard, POW, and MIG) must nest within states

  • PUMAs will be based on aggregations of counties and census tracts only

  • Incorporated places and MCDs will not be used as building blocks for 2010 PUMAs. Census tracts may be aggregated to approximate minor civil divisions, incorporated places, or census designated places.


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PUMA Composition: Use of Census 2010 Counties and Census Tracts as Building Blocks

Provided the PUMA meets the minimum population threshold:

  • One county may be designated as a PUMA

  • Two or more contiguous counties may be aggregated to create a PUMA

  • Contiguous census tracts may be aggregated to create a PUMA

  • Tract-based PUMAs may cross county boundaries, provided that each PUMA-county part meets a minimum population of 2,400


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MCDs, Places, and Census Tracts Tracts as Building Blocksnear Rutland, Vermont

Place


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PUMA Composition: Use of Census 2010 Counties and Census Tracts as Building Blocks

  • Exclude incorporated places:

    • Change frequently over time: annexations/deannexations

      • 2000 PUMAs are not updated as incorporated places change

      • 2000 POW PUMAs are updated as incorporated places change in practice, as the place of work data are coded to the current incorporated place, and not the incorporated place on which the PUMA was built

    • Incorporated places often contain numerous enclaves (holes) and exclaves (noncontiguous pieces)


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Exclaves: Multi-part PUMAs Tracts as Building Blocks


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New York Exclaves: Multi-part PUMAs Tracts as Building Blocks


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PUMA Composition: Use of Census 2010 Counties and Census Tracts as Building Blocks

Exclude minor civil divisions (MCDs):

  • Some change over time, especially where MCDs are defined coextensive with an incorporated place

  • In strong MCD states, MCD boundaries are stable, and census tract boundaries almost always follow the MCD boundaries




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PUMA Contiguity Tracts as Building Blocks

PUMAs must constitute a geographically contiguous area, except:

  • A PUMA may be noncontiguous if a county is noncontiguous.

  • A PUMA may be noncontiguous if a census tract is noncontiguous.


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Non-contiguous PUMAs in NY Tracts as Building Blocks


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Non-contiguous PUMAs in NY Tracts as Building Blocks


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Non-contiguous PUMAs in NY Tracts as Building Blocks


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Non-contiguous PUMAs in NY Tracts as Building Blocks


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PUMAs and AIR/ORTL Tracts as Building Blocks

  • PUMAs should be defined to avoid unnecessarily splitting substantially populated areas of American Indian reservations and off-reservation trust lands for federally recognized tribes

    • If the AIR/ORTL has a population of <100,000 it should be contained within one PUMA

    • If the AIR/ORTL has a population of <200,000 it should be contained within no more than two PUMAs

      Note: Since AIR/ORTL can cross state boundaries this applies to the portion of the AIR/ORTL within a state

      Note: Standard tracts follow the same criteria (should not unnecessarily split AIR/ORTL), so therefore should be good PUMA building blocks in these areas


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AIR/ORTL, State and 2000 PUMA Boundaries Tracts as Building Blocks


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PUMA Guidelines Tracts as Building Blocks

  • Wherever possible, each PUMA should comprise an area that is either entirely inside or entirely outside a current Core Based Statistical Area (i.e., Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas).

  • The Census Bureau recommends that the number of PUMAs be maximized, and that PUMAs should not contain more than 200,000 people, wherever possible, unless the PUMA is defined for an area that is or will be experiencing significant population decline.


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Questions? Tracts as Building Blocks

Vince Osier or April Avnayim

Geographic Standards & Criteria Branch

Geography Division

Washington, DC

301-763-3056

[email protected]

[email protected]


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