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Chapter 11. Race and Ethnicity. Chapter Outline. Race and Ethnicity Racial Stereotypes Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism Theories of Prejudice and Racism. Chapter Outline. Diverse Groups, Diverse Histories Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Relations

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Chapter 11

Chapter 11

Race and Ethnicity


Chapter outline
Chapter Outline

  • Race and Ethnicity

  • Racial Stereotypes

  • Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism

  • Theories of Prejudice and Racism


Chapter outline1
Chapter Outline

  • Diverse Groups, Diverse Histories

  • Patterns of Racial and Ethnic Relations

  • Attaining Racial Equality: The Challenge 


Race and ethnicity
Race and Ethnicity

  • Race is primarily a socially constructed category based on physical criteria.

  • An ethnic group is a social category of people who share a common culture.








Ethnic minority characteristics
Ethnic Minority: Characteristics

  • Possesses characteristics regarded as different from the dominant group (race, ethnicity, sexual preference, age, religion.)

  • Suffers prejudice and discrimination by the dominant group.


Ethnic minority characteristics1
Ethnic Minority: Characteristics

  • Membership is ascribed rather than achieved.

  • Members feel a sense of group solidarity.


Stereotypes
Stereotypes

  • Reinforce prejudices and cause them to persist in society.

  • Racial and gender stereotypes receive ongoing support in the media.

  • Justify the oppression of groups based on race, ethnicity and gender.


Prejudice discrimination and racism
Prejudice, Discrimination and Racism

  • Prejudice is an attitude involving prejudgment on the basis of race or ethnicity.

  • Discrimination is actual behavior involving unequal treatment.

  • Racism involves both attitude and behavior.



Prejudice and socialization
Prejudice and Socialization

  • Media stereotypes began to improve as a result of civil rights activity in the 1960s.

  • Positive interactions between Blacks and Whites have been 5% or less of total interactions on television programs.



Scapegoat theory
Scapegoat Theory

  • Members of the dominant group harbor frustrations in their desire to achieve success.

  • They vent their anger in the form of aggression.

  • The aggression is directed toward members of minority groups who serve as scapegoats.


Authoritarian personality
Authoritarian Personality

Characteristics:

  • Tendency to categorize other people

  • Rigidly conform

  • Intolerance of ambiguity

  • Inclined to superstition




Contact theory
 Contact Theory

  • Interactions will reduce prejudice if 3 conditions are met:

  • Contact is between individuals of equal status.

  • Contact is sustained.

  • Participants agree upon social norms favoring equality.


Native americans
 Native Americans

  • Population in north America in 1492 was from 1 to 10 million.

  • Conquest, disease, and expulsion from their lands resulted in a population of 300,000 by 1850.


Native americans1
 Native Americans

  • 55% of Native Americans live on or near a reservation.

  • Highest poverty rate of all minorities and 50% unemployment among males.


African americans
 African Americans

  • Between 20 and 100 million Africans were transported to the Americas.

  • The majority went to Brazil and the Caribbean, 6% went to the U.S.

  • Slavery evolved as a rigid caste system, also involving the domination of men over women.


African americans1
 African Americans

  • After the civil war, sharecropping emerged as a new exploitative system.

  • The migration of Blacks to the urban north from the 1900s through the 1920s encouraged the development of political, social, and cultural action.


Latinos
Latinos

  • Includes Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, and other Latin American immigrants.

  • Includes Latin Americans who were early settlers in the U.S.

  • The terms Hispanic and Latino/a mask the great diversity among the groups.


Latinos1
Latinos

Entries into U.S. Society:

  • Mexican Americans through military conquest (1846-1848).

  • Puerto Ricans through war with Spain (1898).

  • Cubans as political refugees (1959).


Chinese
Chinese

  • 1865-1868, thousands of Chinese laborers worked for the Central Pacific railroad.

  • In 1882, the Chinese exclusion act banned immigration of laborers and intermarriage.

  • Hostility and exclusion resulted in the creation of Chinatowns.


Japanese
Japanese

  • Immigration of the first generation (Issei) took place between 1890 and 1924.

    • In 1924, passage of the Japanese immigration act forbade further immigration.

  • The second generation (Nisei) became better educated and assimilated.


Japanese1
Japanese

  • Members of the third generation (Sansei) met with prejudice and discrimination.

  • During WWII, Japanese Americans were forced into relocation camps.

  • In 1987, legislation was passed awarding $20,000 to each relocated person and offering an apology.


Middle easterners
 Middle Easterners

  • Immigrants from Middle Eastern countries such as Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, and Iran began arriving in the mid-1970s.

  • Like other immigrants, many experienced downward mobility and formed their own ethnic enclaves.


White ethnic groups
 White Ethnic Groups

  • Immigration dates to the WASP immigrants from England, Scotland, and Wales.

  • 40% of the world’s Jewish population lives in the U.S.

  • In 1924, the National Origins Quota Act, the most discriminatory act in U.S. immigration history, was passed.


Domestic colonialism model
Domestic Colonialism Model

Four elements:

  • Forced and involuntary entry.

  • Control of the group’s affairs by the colonizers.

  • Racism justifies the colonizer’s domination.

  • The minority is prevented from expressing its culture and values.



Civil rights movement
Civil Rights Movement

  • Encouraged resistance to segregation through nonviolent techniques.

  • 1964- Civil rights bill

  • 1965- Voting rights act

  • 1968 - Fair housing act



1. A social category of people who share a common culture is referred to by sociologists as:

a. a minority group

b. a cultural group

c. a racial group

d. an ethnic group


Answer d
Answer: d referred to by sociologists as:

  • A social category of people who share a common culture is referred to by sociologists as an ethnic group.


2. Which of the following statements is true regarding minority groups?

a. Members of a minority group have a strong sense of group solidarity

b. Membership in a minority group is usually achieved.

c. Members of a minority group are usually female.

d. Members of a minority group usually know each other.


Answer a
Answer: a minority groups?

  • The statement, members of a minority group have a strong sense of group solidarity is true regarding minority groups.


3. An oversimplified set of beliefs about members of a social group that is used to categorize members of that group is referred to as:

a. salience principle

b. discrimination

c. prejudice

d. stereotype


Answer d1
Answer: d social group that is used to categorize members of that group is referred to as:

  • An oversimplified set of beliefs about members of a social group that is used to categorize members of that group is referred to as stereotype.


4. The gendered racism theory is most closely associated with the:

a. symbolic interactionist perspective

b. evolutionary perspective

c. functionalist perspective

d. conflict perspective


Answer d2
Answer: d with the:

  • The gendered racism theory is most closely associated with the conflict perspective.



Answer true
Answer: True with the:

  • De facto segregation is common in housing and education.


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