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Punctuation, Grammar, and Usage Exam Review. Fatima prefers to walk to market, while I would rather go by helicopter. Fatima prefers to walk to market, while I would rather go by helicopter. CORRECT. 32a – Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction joining two independent clauses.

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fatima prefers to walk to market while i would rather go by helicopter3

Fatima prefers to walk to market, while I would rather go by helicopter.

CORRECT.

32a – Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction joining two independent clauses.

james earl jones has starred in many movies and also done voiceover work in many more5

James Earl Jones has starred in many movies, and also done voiceover work in many more.

INCORRECT.

32a – second clause has no subject and is therefore a dependent clause.

in the rear of the plane anita and james chatted while waiting for the lavatory7

In the rear of the plane Anita and James chatted while waiting for the lavatory.

INCORRECT.

32b – Use a comma after an introductory clause or phrase.

we love baseball hot dogs apple pie and chevrolet9

We love baseball, hot dogs, apple pie and Chevrolet.

INCORRECT.

32c – Use a comma between all items in a series.

the recipe called for both onions and chocolate11

The recipe called for both onions and chocolate.

CORRECT.

32c – A series must have at least three elements.

today i need to do laundry pay bills scrub and mop the floor and shave the cat13

Today I need to do laundry, pay bills, scrub and mop the floor, and shave the cat.

CORRECT.

Might include a comma after Today, per 32g, but not required, per first example in 33h (in 6th edition; sorry if earlier versions don’t have the same example).

jeans that are washable can be traded for soggy peanuts15

Jeans that are washable can be traded for soggy peanuts.

CORRECT.

32e – Restrictive element—no commas.

jeans which are washable can be traded for soggy peanuts17

Jeans which are washable can be traded for soggy peanuts.

AMBIGUOUS—can be either restrictive or non-restrictive, depending on how the emphasis is placed.

my mother who is 172 years old is very wrinkly19

My mother, who is 172 years old, is very wrinkly.

CORRECT.

32e – Non-restrictive phrase who is 172 years old is not vital information, so add commas.

george eliot s novel middlemarch contains graphic textuality21

George Eliot’s novel, Middlemarch, contains graphic textuality.

INCORRECT.

32e – Restrictive (and also an appositive)

george eliot s longest novel middlemarch contains graphic textuality23

George Eliot’s longest novel, Middlemarch, contains graphic textuality.

CORRECT.

32e – Non-restrictive (non-vital) information, since longest already identifies the proper novel.

it rained all day however i stayed dry because i didn t go outside25

It rained all day, however, I stayed dry because I didn’t go outside.

INCORRECT.

32f – Transitional expression (however) that shifts direction of the sentence.

it rained all day however so we cancelled our picnic27

It rained all day, however, so we cancelled our picnic.

CORRECT.

32f - Transitional expression (however) that does not shift direction of the sentence.

the loveliest socks in the world in case you were wondering are in detroit29

The loveliest socks in the world, in case you were wondering, are in Detroit.

CORRECT.

32f – Use commas to set off parenthetical expressions.

nietzsche initially claimed that which does not kill us only makes us taller31

Nietzsche initially claimed, “That which does not kill us only makes us taller.”

CORRECT.

32fh – Use a comma to introduce a quote.

nietzsche initially claimed that that which does not kill us only makes us taller34

Nietzsche initially claimed that, “That which does not kill us only makes us taller.”

INCORRECT.

32fh – Use a comma to introduce a quote unless using a coordinating conjunction (that).

on may 15 2016 we will finally finish covering grammar36

On May 15, 2016 we will finally finish covering grammar.

INCORRECT.

32i – In dates, the year is set off with commas.

my aunt mathilda lives at 42 cupcake street toad suck ar 7203238

My aunt Mathilda lives at 42 Cupcake Street, Toad Suck, AR 72032.

CORRECT.

32i – In an address, separate all elements except the zip code with commas.

hugh mcsnooty esq fell in the mud40

Hugh McSnooty, Esq. fell in the mud.

INCORRECT.

32i – Separate titles using commas.

jennifer aniston may be pretty but john stamos is prettier42

Jennifer Aniston may be pretty but, John Stamos is prettier.

INCORRECT.

33h – (Almost) Always use a comma before a coordinating conjunction.

we found the alien spaceship and strangely it was filled with gooey pudding44

We found the alien spaceship and, strangely, it was filled with gooey pudding.

CORRECT.

32f – Strangely is a parenthetical expression; thus, separate it with commas.

(Optionally, can add a comma after spaceship.)

alex was so drunk that he almost vomited projectile fashion but managed to keep it all in

Alex was so drunk that he almost vomited, (projectile fashion) but managed to keep it all in.

alex was so drunk that he almost vomited projectile fashion but managed to keep it all in46

Alex was so drunk that he almost vomited, (projectile fashion) but managed to keep it all in.

INCORRECT.

33h – Commas always follow, never precede, parentheses.

yesterday i was sad today i am still sad but at least i am 3 00 richer48

Yesterday I was sad; today I am still sad, but at least I am $3.00 richer.

CORRECT.

34a – Use a semicolon (no hyphen in semicolon) between closely related independent clauses not joined by a coordinating conjunction. Also have option to place commas after both Yesterday and today (see slide 13).

slide49

The lunch menu included a lettuce, tomato, and gerbil salad, koala bear on toast with aoli, cheese, and figs, and for dessert, sugared spiders.

slide50

The lunch menu included a lettuce, tomato, and gerbil salad; koala bear on toast with aoli, cheese, and figs; and for dessert, sugared spiders.

INCORRECT.

43c – Use a semicolon between items in a series containing internal punctuation (above version is correctly punctuated).

the trip included visits to paris berlin madrid and mazomanie52

The trip included visits to: Paris, Berlin, Madrid, and Mazomanie.

INCORRECT.

35a – Use a colon after a complete independent clause to direct attention to a list: The trip included visits to the following: Paris, Berlin, Madrid, and Mazomanie.

slide53

Our new house consists of: three bedrooms, two bathrooms, a kitchen, a dining room, and an Olympic-sized pool.

slide54

Our new house consists of: three bedrooms, two bathrooms, a kitchen, a dining room, and an Olympic-sized pool.

INCORRECT.

35d – Do not use a colon between a preposition and its object. (HAH!)

i hate everyone including george clooney beyonce and stephen hawking56

I hate everyone, including: George Clooney, Beyonce, and Stephen Hawking.

INCORRECT.

35d – Don’t use a colon after such as, including, or for example. It simply isn’t done.

jims dog bit me in the ear58

Jims dog bit me in the ear.

INCORRECT.

36a – Use an apostrophe to show possession.

that briefcase is penelope s60

That briefcase is Penelope’s.

CORRECT.

36a – Use an apostrophe to show possession, even if the noun being possessed precedes the subject.

tommy lee jones new movie is due out in seven minutes62

Tommy Lee Jones’ new movie is due out in seven minutes.

CORRECT.

36a – For possessive nouns ending in S, add an apostrophe. Can also add ’s: Tommy Lee Jones’s new movie is due out in seven minutes.

all the cheerleader s uniforms were stolen by the team mascot64

All the cheerleader’s uniforms were stolen by the team mascot.

Ambiguous.

36a – To denote plural possessive, add an apostrophe. Period. In the plural sense, all of the uniforms of all of the cheerleaders were stolen.

But—One might also argue that there is but one cheerleader who had all of her uniforms stolen, in which case the sentence is punctuated correctly.

jack and jill s troubles all began with that evil pail66

Jack and Jill’s troubles all began with that evil pail.

CORRECT.

36a – To show joint possession (both parties share the troubles), add an apostrophe S only to the last noun.

cory and cora s dogs each looked like jack nicholson68

Cory and Cora’s dogs each looked like Jack Nicholson.

INCORRECT.

36a – To show individual possession (Cory and Cora each have their own dog), add an apostrophe S to each noun.

people sure dressed strangely back in the 60 s70

People sure dressed strangely back in the 60’s.

INCORRECT.

36a and 36c – Sixties is not possessive; further, sentence refers to the 1960s, so we need an apostrophe to indicate that 19 has been ellipsed: ‘60s.

its time to eat72

Its time to eat.

INCORRECT.

36e – It’s = it is.

its time was at an end74

Its time was at an end.

CORRECT.

36e - It’s = it is and nothing else.

who s going to sort out who s sandwiches belong to whom76

Who’s going to sort out who’s sandwiches belong to whom?

INCORRECT.

36e - Who’s = who is and nothing else.

that blue airplane over there is her s78

That blue airplane over there is her’s.

INCORRECT.

36e - Certain pronouns are already possessive.

when thoreau advises us to question authority he didn t mean teachers80

When Thoreau advises us to “question authority”, he didn’t mean teachers.

INCORRECT.

37a - Always question your teachers. Except when they say that soft punctuation goes inside the quotation marks.

thoreau advises us to question authority surely he didn t mean teachers82

Thoreau advises us to “question authority”; surely he didn’t mean teachers!

CORRECT.

37a – Hard punctuation goes outside the quotation marks (except for a period at the end of a sentence).

i want you to question authority as thoreau advises said bernie84

“I want you to “question authority,” as Thoreau advises,” said Bernie.

INCORRECT.

37c - Quotes within quotes use single quotation marks.

i want you to question authority86

I want you to “question authority.”

CORRECT.

37f – A period is the one bit of hard punctuation that goes inside the quotation marks.

who are you i asked88

“Who are you,” I asked?

INCORRECT.

37f – Question mark pertains only to the phrase inside the quotation marks; sentence as a whole is a declarative sentence.

what the brewers need is a big time clutch hitter90

What the Brewers need is a “big-time” clutch hitter.

INCORRECT.

37g – Do not use quotation marks to draw attention to familiar slang, to disown or highlight trite expressions, or to justify an attempt at humor.

i was wondering if you re getting sleepy yet92

I was wondering if you’re getting sleepy yet?

INCORRECT.

38a & b – Differentiate between an actual question and a question couched in a declarative sentence.

ben jonson said of shakespeare that he shakespeare was not of an age but for all time94

Ben Jonson said of Shakespeare that “He (Shakespeare) was not of an age, but for all time.”

INCORRECT.

39c – Use brackets to indicate changes or additions within a direct quote.

aristotle writes love is a single soul inhabiting two bodies96

Aristotle writes, “Love is . . . a single soul inhabiting two bodies.”

CORRECT.

39d – Though it can get pretty crowded in there. But use ellipses only when ellipsing material from the middle of a quote—not at the beginning or the end. And a space before and after every dot.

max is a world class sprinter98

Max is a world-class sprinter.

CORRECT.

44 – Use a hyphen to connect two or more words functioning together as an adjective before a noun.

as a sprinter max is world class100

As a sprinter, Max is world-class.

INCORRECT.

44 – Use a hyphen to connect two or more words functioning together as an adjective before a noun.

we offer both short and long term disability102

We offer both short- and long-term disability.

CORRECT.

Not in the book, but this is how you do it.

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