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ICTP School on Radio Use for Information and Communication Technology The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics ICTP Trieste (Italy) 3 - 21 February 2003 Mobile Internet Professor Gennady Yanovsky, State University of Telecommunications St. Petersburg, Russia

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Mobile internet l.jpg

ICTP School on Radio Use

for Information and Communication Technology

The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics ICTP Trieste (Italy)

3 - 21 February 2003

Mobile Internet

Professor Gennady Yanovsky,

State University of Telecommunications

St. Petersburg, Russia

[email protected]


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  • 1. INTRODUCTION

  • Two concepts

  • Internet

  • Mobile

  • Internet – short history (fixed networks)

  • 1969 – ARPA

  • Noncommercial apps

  • and

  • Weak development (1970-1990)

  • Exponential grows after beginning of 90-th (some figures)

  • Plans for NGN


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Internet development’s illustration


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  • Mobile – short history

  • 70-th – first mobile networks (analog) – 1G

  • 90-th – digital mobile networks – (2G, GSM)

  • Beginning of current decade – (2,5G, EGSM)

  • Expectations – 3G (broadband access, HBRs in air interface)

  • Exponential grows (some figures)


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Constant time-lag between fixed and mobile network applications

Functionality

3 - 5 Years

  • Audio & Videobroadband (DSL, CATV, etc.)

Fixed networks are leading

  • Audio & Videobroadband(UMTS)

  • Functionality

  • Speed

  • Cost

  • Audio & Videonarrowband

  • Audio & Videonarrowband(GPRS)

  • Pictures

  • Graphics

  • WWW

  • Pictures

  • Graphics

  • HSCSD

  • WAP

  • Text

  • SMS

1994

1997

1991

2000

Year

2003

Start of the World Wide Web


Penetration rates for different services for the us market l.jpg

Penetration rates for different services (for the US market)

Time to reach 50 mln customers

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

TV

(15 years)

millions of customers

Internet

(<5 years)

Telephone

(90 years)

Cable TV

(10 years)

Radio

(40 years)

Computer

Mobile Phone

1922

1950

1980

1995

Products have an accelerated market penetration.


2 key forces for broadband access public network principles l.jpg

Wireless

Technologies

Optical Fiber

Twisted Pair

Backbone Network

Cable/Coax

Power line

Access Gateway

Network Terminations

Switching

Transmission

Access Network

2. Key forces for broadband accessPublic Network Principles

Transmission


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How long does it take to download

3 k (EM)

3 M (S/HRP)

300 M (1hV)

Byte

bit/s

GSM

9,6 k

42

mins

3

days

2,5

secs

PSTN

56 k

7

mins

12

hours

0,4

secs

GPRS

ISDN

115 k

128 k

0,2

secs

3,5

mins

6

hours

Live Video codecs starting with 32 kbit/s

UMTS

ADSL

2 M

8 M

0,01

secs

12

secs

20

mins

Cable

WLAN

30 M

80 M

1

msec

1

sec

30

secs

3

msecs

Fiber

800 G

30

µsecs

30

nsecs


Broadband to the customer via different techniques l.jpg

Broadband to the customer via different techniques

Satellites

Sky Stations

Two

general types

to access

the informational

Resources

through Net

GSM/GPRS/UMTS

WLAN

Optical fiber

Twisted Pair

xDSL/ Cable/Coax

Backbone Networks

Access Network


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Fiber

250

Cellular

Wireless*

Coax

Copper Twisted Pair

*Capacity in Mbit/s/sqkm

Technological limitations of different transmission media


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3G - UMTS

EDGE

GPRS

HSCSD

CDMA

GSM

AMPS

PCS

VSAT

WLAN

PMP

CDMA

DECT

Bluetooth

TV

Cellular

WLL

Satellite

Wireless access technologies


Networks go broadband l.jpg

Networks go broadband

Satellite 1.2G

1G

100M

10M

1M

100K

10K

1K

250 Mbs

Satellite

40M

(Indoor)156M

office

MMAC

(Outdoor)30M

Cable modem

human

perception

xDSL

home

UMTS

ISDN

GPRS

128K

Analog modem

56K

33.6K

Transmission Rate (b/s)

Plan

in Operation

Source: SRI International

9.6K

1980 1985 19901995 2000 200520102015 2020

Year


Slide13 l.jpg

How long does it take to download

Wirelesswired

3 k (EM)

3 M (S/HRP)

300 M (1hV)

Byte

bit/s

GSM

9,6 k

42

mins

3

days

2,5

secs

PSTN

56 k

7

mins

12

hours

0,4

secs

GPRS

ISDN

115 k

128 k

0,2

secs

3,5

mins

6

hours

Live Video codecs starting with 32 kbit/s

UMTS

ADSL

2 M

8 M

0,01

secs

12

secs

20

mins

Cable

WLAN

30 M

80 M

1

msec

1

sec

30

secs

3

msecs

Fiber

800 G

30

µsecs

30

nsecs


Mobile access will dominate l.jpg

Subscriptions worldwide (millions)

1800

Mobile

Fixed

Mobile Internet

Fixed Internet

Mobile

subscriptions

1600

1400

1200

1000

Mobile Internet

subscriptions

800

600

400

200

0

1995

2000

2005

2010

Mobile access will dominate

Source: Siemens


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Mobile Messaging Market

  • SMSC/MMSC Supplier Revenues [€m], worldwide

SMSC:

Short Messaging

Service Center

MMSC:

Multimedia Messaging

Service Center

Source: UBS Warburg, 01/02


Mobile devices market l.jpg

Mobile Devices’ Market

Source: Dataquest and UBS Warburg


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Mobile and Internet Penetration

in Western European Countries (YE 2000)

80%

AUT

ITA

FIN

NOR

NL

SPA

SWE

LUX

CH

70%

UK

DK

POR

Mobile Penetration (in %)

60%

GRE

IRL

GER

FRA

BEL

50%

40%

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

Source: Siemens

(Fixed) Internet Penetration (in %)


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3. Evolution of mobile technologies – general picture

Deployment

2000-2006

Future

Deployment

Mobility

Vehicular

UMTS

FDD

2.5G

2G

Beyond 3G

Large Area coverage

up to 384

kbit/s

GSM

GPRS

EDGE

UMTS

TDD

MMAC

Pedestrian

BWA

Pedestrian-

portable

up to 20Mbit/s

Indoor

up to 2 Mbit/s

Bluetooth

BRAN, Hyperaccess

Portable

Cordless

DECT

Wireless LAN

Hyper an 2, IEEE 802.11a/b

Fixed

FWA (Fixed Wireless Access)

1

10

100

Information Rate (Mbit/s)

0.1


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4. IP Mobility

4.1. GPRS

General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) is a packet-based wireless communication service that provides data rates from 56 up to 114 Kbps and continuous connection to the Internet for mobile phone and computer users.


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GPRS Main Features-1

1. GPRS is based on Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication and supports Internet Protocol

Evolution of 2G to 3G for data transmission protocols


Slide21 l.jpg

GPRS Main Features-2

2. GPRS will complement existing services such circuit-switched cellular phone connections and the Short Message Service (SMS).

3. GPRS will also complement Bluetooth, a standard for replacing wired connections between home devices with wireless radio connections.

4. In addition to the Internet Protocol (IP), GPRS supports X.25, a packet-based protocol. GPRS is an evolutionary step toward Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE) and Universal Mobile Telephone Service (UMTS).


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EDGE is a new radio interface that employs a combination

of new coding schemes, new modulation, and the ability

to dynamically choose the best possible combination

of coding scheme and modulation, based on instantaneous error rates.

Total maximum theoretical throughput of EDGE is 470Kbits/sec.


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GPRS Network (1)


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SGSN – Serving GPRS Support Node

SGSN – Gateway GPRS Support Node

GPRS Network (2)


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MSC - Mobile Switching Center

BSC – Base Station Controller

SGSN – Serving GPRS Support Node

SGSN – Gateway GPRS Support Node

GPRS Architecture


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GSM-based 2.5/3G network fragment referred to GPRS architecture - 1


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GSM-based all-IP network fragment referred to UMTS architecture


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  • GPRS Applications

  • General-purpose IP networking

  • WAP-based applications

  • Services (using mobile handheld devices as well as notebook computers):

  • Video conferences

  • Interactive communications with MM Web sites

  • Time frame

  • GPRS won't roll out instantaneously around the world.

  • Many GSM carriers start trials by the end of 2000 and continued in 2001/02, but only small portion of their provide total coverage areas. May be on 2003 users can roam on a widespread basis.


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  • 4.2 Mobile IPv6

  • Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) is a protocol developed as a subset of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) to support mobile connections. MIPv6 is an update of the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) Mobile IP standard (RFC 2002) designed to authenticate mobile devices (known as mobile nodes) using IPv6 addresses.

  • Traditional IP routing (IPv4):

  • IP addresses represent a topology.

  • Each node's IP address identifies the network link where the node is connected.

  • If a mobile device is disconnected from the own Internet and want to reconnect through a other (visiting) network, user have to configure the device with a new IP address

  • IP mobility is the add-on feature and the vast majority of IPv6 nodes do not support MoIP

  • MIPv6 allows a mobile node to maintain connections transparently while moving from one subnet to another. Each device is identified by its home address although it may be connecting to through another network. When connecting through a foreign network, a mobile device sends its location information to a home agent, which intercepts packets, intended for the device and tunnels them to the current location.


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4.2.1. IPv4 and IPv6 (General view)

IPv4 Header


Slide31 l.jpg

0

31

0

31

Flow label (20)

1

V

(4)

Traffic

class (8)

1

Hope limit

(8)

2

Payload length

(16)

2

Next

header (8)

3

4

Source IP address

Source IP address

5

Destination IP address

6

6

Destination IP address

10

IPv4 and IPv6 headers


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  • 4.2.2. Main advantages of IPv6 vs. IPv4

  • Scalability(Extended address space [128 bits])

  • Security (Authentication and security – Next headerfieldcapability)

  • Mobility (Destination and routing options - Next headerfieldcapability)

  • QoS (Differentiated services, incl. RT operations - Flow label fieldcapability)


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  • HOME ELECTRONICS

  • PC

  • TV set

  • Micro oven

  • Set-top box

  • Video player

  • Bluetooth devices

  • PERSONAL DEVICES

  • Mobile phone

  • LT PC

  • PDA

  • MP3 MP

  • Web browser

  • Digital camera

  • VEHICLES

  • Car

  • Boat

  • Train

  • Airplane

Need

for IP access

In the near future, many devices will require their own Internet address

  • AUTOMATION

  • Alarm systems

  • Heating

  • Electricity

  • Remote monitoring


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4.2.3_1. Mobile Internet Scenario for IPv4 (RFC 2002)


Slide35 l.jpg

ER

ER

ER

ER

4.2.3_2. Mobile Internet Scenario for IPv6 (an update of RFC 2002)


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4.4. Main Definitions of Mobile IP

Binding

The association/mapping between the mobile node's home address and a care-of address

Care-of Address

A temporary IP address associated with a mobile node while visiting a foreign network (see Appendix 2 for details)

Correspondent Node

A node that is communicating with the mobile node (for example, a WWW server)

Home Address

A static IP address assigned to the mobile node in the home network


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Home Agent

A router on the mobile node's home network with which the mobile node has registered its current care-of address. The mobile node's home address is associated with the home agent

Mobile Node

A terminal that can change its point of attachment in the IP network. A mobile node can be reached via its static home address


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  • The benefits of Mobile IPv6 compared to Mobile IPv4 include:

  • • The huge address space of IPv6 makes Mobile IPv6 deployment more straightforward

  • IPv6 address autoconfiguration simplifies the care-of address assignment for the mobile node. It also eases the address management in a large network infrastructure

  • Optimized routing: Mobile IPv6 avoids so-called triangular routing


5 example i mode shift strategy to 3g l.jpg

Music

Video

Video

Conference

Video

Telephone

Mobile TV

5. Example: i-mode - Shift Strategy to 3G

IMT 2000 (3G)

Increasing bandwidth

Java

Colored LCD

Open standards

Games

Pictures

i-mode launch

Home-

page

e-mail

Feb.

1999

Fall,

1999

Winter,

1999

Fall,

2000

Spring,

2001

Source: NTT DoCoMo, Siemens


Example i mode subscriber and information site evolution l.jpg

i-mode subscriber growth & percentage of DoCoMo subscribers (‘000 / %)

10000

30%

26,8%

23,4%

25%

8000

21,7%

8289

19,1%

7114

20%

6510

15,6%

6000

5603

13,3%

15%

4463

4000

3743

10%

2000

5%

0

0%

Jan. 00

Feb. 00

Mar 00

Apr 00

Mai 00

Jun 00

i-mode information sites (absolute)

20.000

18.273

  • # of Voluntary Sites

  • # of Official Sites

15.609

15.000

12.940

10.000

10.000

8.224

6.357

5.052

5.000

312

341

421

470

501

519

578

0

Jan 00

Feb 00

Mar 00

Apr 00

Mai 00

Jun 00

Jul 00

Example: i-mode – subscriber and information site evolution

  • Number of subscribers raised from 0 to 5.6 million within one year

  • Number of sites increased to 7.000 sites within one year

Success in mobile data is driven by open access

Source: Goldman Sachs, ING Barings, Communications International


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  • Appendix 1

  • Care-of address

  • Thecare-of address is a temporary IP address for a mobile node (mobile device) that enables message delivery when the device is connecting from somewhere other than its home network.

  • The care-of address identifies a mobile node's current point of attachment to the Internet and makes it possible to connect from a different location without changing the device's home address (permanent IP address) – like the postal system.

  • When a mobile device is away from its home network, it is assigned a care-of address.

  • Mobile IP registers the care-of address with a home agent, which resides on the home network. When a message for the mobile node is delivered to the home network, the home agent intercepts the message and tunnels it to the recipient at the care-of address.


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Appendix 2

ABBREVIATIONS-1

2G Second Generation Mobile Telecommunications

(including GSM and GPRS technologies)3G Third Generation Mobile Telecommunications

(including WCDMA/UMTS technology)BG Border Gateway

CN Correspondent Node

CoA Care-of Address

DHCPv6 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6

DNS Domain Name System

ER Edge Router

FA Foreign Agent

GGSN Gateway GPRS Support NodeGPRS General Packet Radio ServiceGTP GPRS Tunneling Protocol


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ABBREVIATIONS-2

HA Home Agent

HLR Home Location Register

ICMP(v6) Internet Control Message Protocol (for IPv6)IETFInternet Engineering Task Force

IPsec IP securityIPv4 Internet Protocol, version 4

IPv6 Internet Protocol, version 6

ISP Internet Service Provider

MN Mobile Node

MT Mobile Terminal

PLMN Public Land Mobile NetworkRFC Request For Comments (a specification by IETF)


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ABBREVIATIONS-3

SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node

UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

WAP Wireless Application Protocol

WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access

WLAN Wireless LAN

WWW World Wide Web


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