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Physical Media. physical link: what lies between transmitter & receiver guided media: signals propagate in solid media: copper, coax, fiber unguided media: signals propagate freely, e.g., radio signals. Physical Media. Common Cabling. Copper Twisted Pair Unshielded (UTP)

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Physical media2 l.jpg

physical link: what lies between transmitter & receiver

guided media:

signals propagate in solid media: copper, coax, fiber

unguided media:

signals propagate freely, e.g., radio signals

Physical Media


Common cabling l.jpg
Common Cabling

  • Copper

    • Twisted Pair

      • Unshielded (UTP)

        • CAT-1, CAT-2, CAT-3, CAT-4, CAT-5, CAT-5e

      • Shielded (STP)

    • Coaxial Cable

      • Cable TV cable

  • Fiber

    • Single-mode

    • Multi-mode


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Twisted Pair

  • Most common LAN interconnection

  • Multiple pairs of twisted wires

  • Twisting to eliminate interference

    • More twisting = Higher bandwidth, cost

  • Standards specify twisting, resistance, and maximum cable length for use with particular link layer


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Twisted Pair

  • 5 categories

    • Category 1

      • Voice only (telephone wire)

    • Category 2

      • Data to 4Mbs (LocalTalk)

    • Category 3

      • Data to 10Mbs (Ethernet)

    • Category 4

      • Data to 20Mbs (16Mbs Token Ring)

    • Category 5 (100 MHz)

      • Data to 100Mbs (Fast Ethernet)

    • Category 5e (350 MHz)

      • Data to 1000Mbs (Gigabit Ethernet)


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Twisted Pair

  • Common connectors for Twisted Pair

    • RJ11 (6 pairs)

    • RJ45 (8 pairs)

      • Allows both data and phone connections

      • (1,2) and (3,6) for data, (4,5) for voice

      • Crossover cables for NIC-NIC, Hub-Hub connection (Data pairs swapped)


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UTP

  • Unshielded Twisted Pair

    • Limited amount of protection from interference

    • Commonly used for voice and Ethernet

      • Voice: multipair 100-ohm UTP


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STP

  • Shielded Twisted Pair

    • UTP susceptible to radio and electrical interference

    • To reduce this interference, extra shielding material added to obtain STP

    • Cables heavier, bulkier, and more $$

    • Often used in token ring topologies

      • 150 ohm STP two pair (IEEE 802.5 Token Ring)

    • Not as common as UTP


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Coaxial cable

  • Single copper conductor at center

  • Plastic insulation layer

  • Highly resistant to interference

    • Braided metal shield

    • Support longerconnectivity distances over UTP


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Coaxial cable

  • Thick (10Base5)

    • Large diameter 50-ohm cable

    • N connectors

  • Thin (10Base2) cables

    • Small diameter 50-ohm cable

    • BNC, RJ-58 connector

  • Video cable

    • 75-ohm cable

    • BNC, RJ-59 connector

    • Not compatible with RJ-58


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Fiber

  • Center core made of glass or plastic fiber

  • Transmit lightversuselectronic signals

    • Protects from electronic interference, moisture

  • Plastic coating to cushion core

  • Kevlar fiber for strength

  • Teflon or PVC outer insulating jacket


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Fiber

  • Single-mode fiber

    • Smaller diameter (12.5 microns)

    • One mode only

    • Preserves signal better over longer distances

    • Typically used for SONET or SDH

    • Lasers used to signal

    • More expensive

  • Multi-mode fiber

    • Larger diameter (62.5 microns)

    • Multiple modes

    • LEDs used to signal

    • WDM and DWDM

  • Photodiodes at receivers


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PL: Fiber connectors

  • ESCON

  • Duplex SC

  • ST

  • MT-RJ (multimode)

  • Duplex LC


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Wireless

  • Entire spectrum of transmission frequency ranges

    • Radio

    • Infrared

    • Lasers

    • Cellular telephone

    • Microwave

    • Satellite

    • Acoustic (see ESE sensors)

    • Ultra-wide band

  • http://www.ntia.doc.gov/osmhome/allochrt.html


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Protocol

Cable

Speed

Topology

Ethernet

Twisted Pair, Coaxial, Fiber

10 Mbps

Linear Bus, Star, Tree

Fast Ethernet

Twisted Pair, Fiber

100 Mbps

Star

LocalTalk

Twisted Pair

.23 Mbps

Linear Bus or Star

Token Ring

Twisted Pair

4 Mbps - 16 Mbps

Star-Wired Ring

FDDI

Fiber

100 Mbps

Dual ring

ATM

Twisted Pair, Fiber

155-2488 Mbps

Linear Bus, Star, Tree

What runs on them?

Protocol Summary


Summary l.jpg

When connecting 2 nodes, you have 2 choices:

Use wires to connect the nodes:

What cable to use to connect the transmitter and receiver?

Twisted Pair

Coax

Fiber

Wireless transmission

Summary


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