nutrition and energy flow
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Nutrition and Energy Flow. The Producers. Autotrophs are an organism that uses light from the sun to produce energy. Producing energy from the sun is called photosynthesis. Other organisms that depend on autotrophs for food are called consumers. . The Consumers.

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the producers
The Producers
  • Autotrophs are an organism that uses light from the sun to produce energy.
    • Producing energy from the sun is called photosynthesis.
  • Other organisms that depend on autotrophs for food are called consumers.
the consumers
The Consumers
  • Heterotrophs cannot make their own food so they feed on other organisms.
    • A heterotroph that feeds on only plants is an herbivore (Ex. Grasshoppers)
    • Some heterotrophs feed on other heterotrophs (Ex. Lion)
    • Some heterotrophs feed on both autotrophs and heterotrophs (Ex. Dog or Cat).
food chain
Food Chain
  • Food chain is a simple model that shows how each living thing gets its food.
    • A food chain always starts with plant life and ends with an animal.
    • A food chain is drawn using arrows to indicate the direction of energy flow from one organism to the next.
          • Ex. Berries > Mice > Black Bear
trophic levels
Trophic Levels
  • Trophic level is a feeding step
      • So in the food chain example each animal would be a trophic level
          • Berries > Mice > Black Bear
      • Many different kinds of organisms eat a variety of foods, so a single species may feed at several trophic levels.
        • So black bears eat many different animals so on a food chain they wouldn’t always be eating mice but they might eat at a different trophic level.
        • A food chain represents only one possible route for the transfer of energy.
ecological pyramid
Ecological Pyramid
  • It shows how energy flows through an ecosystem or how energy goes from autotrophs (plants) to herbivores (only eat plants), to carnivores (eat other animals).
energy pyramid
Energy Pyramid
  • Pyramid of energy shows the amount of available energy that is gained from eating decreases at each following trophic level.
cycles in nature
Cycles in Nature
  • Some of the energy from food chains and webs is also transferred into the environment as heat generated by the body.
  • Matter is constantly recycled, it is never lost.
water cycle
Water Cycle
  • Water comes down to the earth by way of rain, ice and snow (precipitation) and it also goes back to the sky by way of evaporation. Pg. 53
  • Animals breath out water vapor in every breath and when they perspire or urinate water also returns to the environment.
The water vapor in the air condenses on the surface of the can because the can is colder than the surrounding air.
    • Same thing with dew on the grass in the morning.
carbon cycle
Carbon Cycle
  • Carbon is the molecule of life. Pg. 55
    • All life is based on carbon molecules.
  • During photosynthesis energy from the sun is used by autorophic organisms to convert carbon dioxide gas (co2) into energy rich carbon molecules (energy).
    • When the autotrophs and heterotrophs use these molecules then carbon dioxide is released and returned to the atmosphere.
nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen Cycle
  • Nitrogen makes up 78% of the air.
    • Plants need nitrogen in a more usable form that is found in the ground so there are different bacteria that convert the nitrogen from the air to nitrogen in the soil.
    • Humans and animals get nitrogen from eating plants or animals that have eaten plants.
  • Nitrogen is put back into the soil and air through urine, waste, and decomposition.
phosphorus cycle
Phosphorus Cycle
  • All organisms require phosphorus for growth and development.
    • Animals obtain phosphorus by eating plants. When the animals die they decompose and the phosphorus is returned to the soil to be used again.