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Introduction to C Programming . Introduction. Books. “The Waite Group’s Turbo C Programming for PC”, Robert Lafore, SAMS “C How to Program”, H.M. Deitel, P.J. Deitel, Prentice Hall. What is C?. C

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  • “The Waite Group’s Turbo C Programming for PC”, Robert Lafore, SAMS
  • “C How to Program”, H.M. Deitel, P.J. Deitel, Prentice Hall
what is c
What is C?
  • C
    • A language written by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie. This was to be the language that UNIX was written in to become the first "portable" language

In recent years C has been used as a general-purpose language because of its popularity with


why use c
Why use C?
  • Mainly because it produces code that runs nearly as fast as code written in assembly language. Some examples of the use of C might be:
    • Operating Systems
    • Language Compilers
    • Assemblers
    • Text Editors
    • Print Spoolers
    • Network Drivers
    • Modern Programs
    • Data Bases
    • Language Interpreters
    • Utilities

Mainly because of the portability that writing standard C programs can offer

  • In 1972 Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs writes C and in 1978 the publication of The C Programming Language by Kernighan & Ritchie caused a revolution in the computing world
  • In 1983, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) established a committee to provide a modern, comprehensive definition of C. The resulting definition, the ANSI standard, or "ANSI C", was completed late 1988.
why c still useful
Why C Still Useful?
  • C provides:
    • Efficiency, high performance and high quality s/ws
    • flexibility and power
    • many high-level and low-level operations  middle level
    • Stability and small size code
    • Provide functionality through rich set of function libraries
    • Gateway for other professional languages like C  C++  Java
  • C is used:
    • System software Compilers, Editors, embedded systems
    • data compression, graphics and computational geometry, utility programs
    • databases, operating systems, device drivers, system level routines
    • there are zillions of lines of C legacy code
    • Also used in application programs
software development method
Software Development Method
  • Requirement Specification
    • Problem Definition
  • Analysis
    • Refine, Generalize, Decompose the problem definition
  • Design
    • Develop Algorithm
  • Implementation
    • Write Code
  • Verification and Testing
    • Test and Debug the code
development with c
Development with C
  • Four stages
    • Editing: Writing the source code by using some IDE or editor
    • Preprocessing or libraries: Already available routines
    • compiling: translates or converts source to object code for a specific platform source code -> object code
    • linking:resolves external references and produces the executable module
  • Portable programs will run on any machine but…..
  • Note! Program correctness and robustness are most important than program efficiency
programming languages
Programming languages
  • Various programming languages
  • Some understandable directly by computers
  • Others require “translation” steps
    • Machine language
      • Natural language of a particular computer
      • Consists of strings of numbers(1s, 0s)
      • Instruct computer to perform elementary operations one at a time
      • Machine dependant
programming languages1
Programming languages
  • Assembly Language
    • English like abbreviations
    • Translators programs called “Assemblers” to convert assembly language programs to machine language.
    • E.g. add overtime to base pay and store result in gross pay




programming languages2
Programming languages
  • High-level languages
    • To speed up programming even further
    • Single statements for accomplishing substantial tasks
    • Translator programs called “Compilers” to convert high-level programs into machine language
    • E.g. add overtime to base pay and store result in gross pay

grossPay = basePay + overtimePay

history of c
History of C
  • Evolved from two previous languages
    • BCPL , B
  • BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) used for writing OS & compilers
  • B used for creating early versions of UNIX OS
  • Both were “typeless” languages
  • C language evolved from B (Dennis Ritchie – Bell labs)

** Typeless – no datatypes. Every data item occupied 1 word in memory.

history of c1
History of C
  • Hardware independent
  • Programs portable to most computers
  • Dialects of C
    • Common C
    • ANSI C
      • ANSI/ ISO 9899: 1990
      • Called American National Standards Institute ANSI C
  • Case-sensitive
c standard library
C Standard Library
  • Two parts to learning the “C” world
    • Learn C itself
    • Take advantage of rich collection of existing functions called C Standard Library
  • Avoid reinventing the wheel
  • SW reusability
basics of c environment
Basics of C Environment
  • C systems consist of 3 parts
    • Environment
    • Language
    • C Standard Library
  • Development environment has 6 phases
    • Edit
    • Pre-processor
    • Compile
    • Link
    • Load
    • Execute
basics of c environment1
Basics of C Environment

Creates object code

and stores on disk

Program edited in

Editor and stored

on disk


program processes

the code

Links object code

with libraries and

stores on disk









Phase 3

Phase 2

Phase 4

Phase 1

basics of c environment2
Basics of C Environment

Primary memory

Puts program in



Phase 5

Primary memory

Takes each instruction

and executes it storing

new data values


Phase 6

simple c program
Simple C Program

/* A first C Program*/

#include <stdio.h>

void main()

{     printf("Hello World \n");


simple c program1
Simple C Program
  • Line 1: #include <stdio.h>
  • As part of compilation, the C compiler runs a program called the C preprocessor. The preprocessor is able to add and remove code from your source file.
  • In this case, the directive #include tells the preprocessor to include code from the file stdio.h.
  • This file contains declarations for functions that the program needs to use. A declaration for the printf function is in this file.
simple c program2
Simple C Program
  • Line 2: void main()
  • This statement declares the main function.
  • A C program can contain many functions but must always have one main function.
  • A function is a self-contained module of code that can accomplish some task.
  • Functions are examined later.
  • The "void" specifies the return type of main. In this case, nothing is returned to the operating system.
simple c program3
Simple C Program
  • Line 3: {
  • This opening bracket denotes the start of the program.
simple c program4
Simple C Program
  • Line 4: printf("Hello World From About\n");
  • Printf is a function from a standard C library that is used to print strings to the standard output, normally your screen.
  • The compiler links code from these standard libraries to the code you have written to produce the final executable.
  • The "\n" is a special format modifier that tells the printf to put a line feed at the end of the line.
  • If there were another printf in this program, its string would print on the next line.
simple c program5
Simple C Program
  • Line 5: }
  • This closing bracket denotes the end of the program.
escape sequence
Escape Sequence
  • \n new line
  • \t tab
  • \r carriage return
  • \a alert
  • \\ backslash
  • \” double quote
memory concepts
Memory concepts
  • Every variable has a name, type and value
  • Variable names correspond to locations in computer memory
  • New value over-writes the previous value– “Destructive read-in”
  • Value reading called “Non-destructive read-out”
arithmetic in c
Arithmetic in C

C operation Algebraic C

Addition(+) f+7 f+7

Subtraction (-) p-c p-c

Multiplication(*) bm b*m

Division(/) x/y, x , x y x/y

Modulus(%) r mod s r%s

precedence order
Precedence order
  • Highest to lowest
      • ()
      • *, /, %
      • +, -


z = pr%q+w/x-y


z = p * r % q + w / x – y ;


1 2 4 3 5



a(b+c)+ c(d+e)


a * ( b + c ) + c * ( d + e ) ;


3 1 5 4 2

decision making
Decision Making
  • Checking falsity or truth of a statement
  • Equality operators have lower precedence than relational operators
  • Relational operators have same precedence
  • Both associate from left to right
decision making1
Decision Making
  • Equality operators
      • ==
      • !=
  • Relational operators
      • <
      • >
      • <=
      • >=
summary of precedence order
Summary of precedence order

Operator Associativity

() left to right

* / % left to right

+ - left to right

< <= > >= left to right

== != left to right

= left to right

increment decrement operators
Increment/ decrement operators
  • ++ ++a
  • ++ a++
  • -- --a
  • -- a--
increment decrement operators1
Increment/ decrement operators



int c;

c = 5;

printf(“%d\n”, c);

printf(“%d\n”, c++);

printf(“%d\n\n”, c);

c = 5;

printf(“%d\n”, c);

printf(“%d\n”, ++c);

printf(“%d\n”, c);

return 0;








thank you
Thank You
  • Thank You