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1. History DO NOT memorize exact dates! (But remember general span of time) Break into pre- vs. post-WW II parts Watershed event is 1947-1949 adoption of Boulder model

3. Pre- WW II Events, cont’d 1916 Terman’s Stanford-Binet (translated, enlarged, renormed Binet) 1918 Woodworth Personal Data Sheet (personality) used by armed services; Army group intelligence tests (Yerkes) 1920 Rorschach (Swiss psychiatrist) publishes inkblot test; dies soon afterward; little early attention in U.S.

4. Pre- WW II Events, cont’d Psychology very assessment-oriented until 1920's, though Watson & Rayner (1920, 1921) published Little Albert case study (much questioned) 1935 APA sets clinical psychology standards: training, practice 1939 Wechsler-Bellevue test for adults; Hathaway & McKinley publish first Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scales

5. Post-WW II Events During WW II officials foresaw impending flood of disabled veterans (including mental health), based on WW I experience Veterans Bureau (now Dept. of Veterans Affairs) hospitals built, benefits created Staffing solution: use psychologists Training too slow, salaries too expensive to use psychiatrists Few effective somatic treatments (barbiturates, shock treatments)

6. Post-WW II Events, cont’d 1942 Rogers’s nondirective/client-centered therapy (only became well-known after WWII, due to low journal circulation during war). Importance: developed by a (U.S.) psychologist non-psychodynamic theory shorter-term treatment than previously advocated Rogers was a pretty rigorous researcher

7. Post-WW II Events, cont’d 1947 Shakow report for APA on training models. Two alternatives: Scientist training Practitioner training No recommendation about which, or how much of each, to use 1949 Boulder meeting Shakow pal of Max Hutt, military psycholo-gist with major influence on government role in psychology training

8. Post-WW II Events, cont’d Upshot of Boulder meeting: Vague, hybrid “scientist-practitioner” model adopted Universities will train students in research, give Ph.D.; mostly outside hospitals/clinics (usually VAMCs) will train students in practicum/internship Universities started gearing up to quickly train many psychologists (around 50/year)

9. Post-WW II Events, cont’d 1950s Rapid employment growth—VAMCs, hospitals, some clinics 1952 Eysenck review of therapy (in)effectiveness stirs up clinicians 1953 Phenothiazines introduced; state hospital populations gradually start declining (through 1970s) 1954 Rogers publishes first controlled psychotherapy outcome study

10. Post-WW II Events, cont’d 1957 Wolpe introduces systematic desensitization (a behavioral approach); Ellis introduces Rational-Emotive Therapy (a cognitive approach) 1963 Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs) started drugs got patients out of hospital, but they relapsed a lot patients needed multidisciplinary in-community support (including psychologists)

11. Post-WW II Events, cont’d Problem with CMHCs: continuing mandate, declining funding 1965 Chicago meeting: University-based “professional” training model (“PsyD,” Doctor of Psychology) discussed, as Ph.D. alternative 1973 Vail conference affirms scientist practitioner AND professional models; a number of departments start PsyD programs

12. Post-WW II Events, cont’d 1970’s–1980’s Growth of independence hospital “admission” privileges third-party reimbursement without MD supervision (psychologists sued to break up MD-insurance company monopolies) 1980’s Explosion of “free-standing” PsyD programs; psychology departments drop them during budget crunches

13. Post-WW II Events, cont’d 1990’s Prescription privileges debate starts; alarm about jobs and income in field 1992 APA new code of ethics – detailed, restrictive 1994–present Malpractice lawsuits skyrocket (boundary violations, failure to prevent harm, informed consent problems, quack therapies) 2001 New Mexico passes prescription privileges bill

14. Summary of Trends Boulder model here to stay in universities (98% endorsement) PsyD’s almost all from free-standing schools Declining funds, rising training expense Surplus of practitioners? Managed care + oversupply means decreased income Universal licensure; no independent practice for master’s level graduates

15. Summary of Trends, cont’d Replacement of doctoral-level psychologists by cheaper MSWs Some states bring back MA-level “Psycho-logical Practitioner” who practices under supervision More biologically oriented research, views Ever-shorter psychotherapy; more cognitive, behavioral treatments Lists of “empirically supported” treatments; practice guidelines in psychiatry, too

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