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Why do we care?. Historical events and social times influence our valuesPolitical trends provoke a reaction from the social groupIn turn, influences how are children are raised and valuedCurrent trends and practices are often rooted by some past practice (rediscovery). Differing cultures. Some understanding of diverse cultures help us as educators to better understand an
Historical Influences on Early Childhood Education

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1. ECE104 Foundation of ECE Historical Influences on Early Childhood Education

2. Why do we care? Historical events and social times influence our values Political trends provoke a reaction from the social group In turn, influences how are children are raised and valued Current trends and practices are often rooted by some past practice (rediscovery)

3. Differing cultures Some understanding of diverse cultures help us as educators to better understand an ?American? perspective on children What does this mean?

4. Remember We often take what we hold to be true as the only truth In fact, there can be many right ways to do things Dependent upon values, personal history, present conditions

5. Do you value this? Early attainment of individuality and independence

6. Do you value this? Early attainment of individuality and independence Western European value but not for those groups whose society promotes group harmony and interdependence

7. Do you value this? Early and free exploration

8. Do you value this? Early and free exploration This value is not held in societies where children are held close, carrying them while they work; often poor, developing areas

9. Do you value this? Importance of early stimulation of intellect and language

10. Do you value this? Importance of early stimulation of intellect and language Push down education that has increased focus on academic and intellectual standards with little discussion on developmental domains in the early years

11. How and when? Every society has the task of socializing and educating its children, but how and when it is done, is very dependent upon the values and resources available.

12. What is early childhood? (AKA Early care and education) Children ages birth through age 8 In group settings: Infant and toddler rooms Preschools and nursery schools Kindergarten Grades 1-3 Before and after school programs

13. In early childhood, we are often the bridge between the child?s two worlds: Home and school (group setting) Foundation for future learning (Building Block years)

14. Ancient Times Definition of early childhood varies throughout time Often considered adults by age 7 Education started at home Schooling provided to wealthy boys Girls and working class taught domestic work

15. Plato and Aristotle While education was beginning around 6 or 7, Plato and Aristotle thought education needed to be younger Romans felt education needed to be at home when started to talk Highlighted the use of rewards and ineffectiveness of corporal punishment

16. Ancient Greeks and Romans Time of first schools outside of the home Plato (427 B.C.) and Aristotle (384-323B.C.) founded schools using small group tutoring Taught wealthy boys thinking skills, governing, military strategy and commerce

17. 400-1200 A.D. Roman Empire fell apart Childhood barely lasted past infancy Education become responsibility of parents but.. Parents focused on survival Childhood not seen as a separate time of life Children needed to get into labor force to contribute to family Schools ceased to exist

18. Before 15th Century No educational system Church in control in the medieval period Children viewed as evil and needed to be prepared for the afterlife Children needed to be directed, punished and corrected Children expected to move quickly into adulthood

19. European Renaissance and Reformation 1400-1600 Life was getting easier Humanists educators advocated for basic education for girls and the poor Children were viewed as good Printing press invented which allowed for books to be available to the common person This period brought to us the idea of universal education and literacy

20. 1500?s Taught reading, writing, arithmetic and book keeping became common through out Europe As living conditions improved, children lived longer Came to understand that the educated child could help improve the family conditions but.. Families needed help in educating their children

21. Modern Times John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) Books with illustrations Teachers should follow child?s own timetable Learning by doing, using the senses, make exciting Social reform: educate poor and rich

22. John Locke 1632-1714) Tabula rasa (clean slate) Education needed to take into account individual differences Goal was to make a ?reasoning creature? so able to conduct business Instruction be playful and pleasant as well as drills

23. Jean Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778 Children naturally good Use of concrete materials Children learn from first hand information Phases of development of a child?s mind Education should match level of development Influenced future educators such as Froebel and Montessori

24. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi 1746-1827 More pragmatic: teach basic skills Caring as well as educating Integrated curriculum to educate the whole child Teaching in groups rather than with tutors (Rousseau)

25. Friedrich Froebel 1782-1852 Father of the kindergarten Early childhood should be pleasant Children should be able to play With trained teachers

26. Maria Montessori 1870-1952 First female physician in Italy Worked with poor and retarded children Education begins at birth Children pass through ?sensitive periods? Sequential steps of learning

27. Rudolph Steiner 1861-1925 Establishment of Waldorf Schools Carefully planned and nurturing environment Different areas of development connected Play is important

28. Other influences from around the world Besides the European influences, there have been other influences in our educating of young Japan and China: harmony, children good and worth of respect Native Americans: interconnectedness between families and people and nature Africa: pool resources for common good Latin America and Hispanic: value children; cooperation; sensitivity to authority figures

29. American Influences Colonial times: children sent to school for religious reasons High death rate during starving season (60-70% under 4) Little overt affection Children were economic tools In the South, tutors to teach sons to read and write Post Revolutionary War, no move towards education until late 1800?s because focus on growing crops and pioneering future During Industrial Revolution, manual labor and machine operating skills more important

30. African Americans Prior to Civil War, limited opportunities for African Americans to attend school Babies and pregnant women treated well because of their economic value Laws prohibiting the teaching of slaves; seen as threatening Post Civil War, first education of Blacks but often on a quota system and may be excluded

31. John Dewey 1858-1952 Big influence on current teaching practices Education should be integrated into with life and support living in society (learning and living inseparable) Children were naturally good School focus on ALL the basics not just a few

32. Moving forward There are many modern influences on current education that will be explored throughout the semester Rarely is position on education new; it is often a recycle or reforming of a philosophy from the past the is currently adopted as best practice for the current times

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