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Fruits and Vegetables in South Phoenix PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Fruits and Vegetables in South Phoenix Kai-Ning Khor, MPH June 12, 2008 Overview Learning Objectives Background Survey Methods Data Analysis Methods Results Conclusion Discussion Challenges in survey methods Challenges in data analysis methods Future Learning Objectives

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Fruits and Vegetables in South Phoenix

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Fruits and vegetables in south phoenix l.jpg

Fruits and Vegetables in South Phoenix

Kai-Ning Khor, MPH

June 12, 2008


Overview l.jpg

Overview

  • Learning Objectives

  • Background

  • Survey Methods

  • Data Analysis Methods

  • Results

  • Conclusion

  • Discussion

    • Challenges in survey methods

    • Challenges in data analysis methods

  • Future


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Learning Objectives

  • Participants will be able to:

    • Describe the project Arizona’s Healthy Weight Action Learning Collaborative completed.

    • Recognize the lessons Arizona’s team learned regarding the NEMS.

    • Identify ways the fruit and vegetable availability will be affected with the new WIC food package


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Background

  • Nutrition Environment Measures Survey (NEMS)

    • Observational measures of community nutrition environments in stores

    • Measures focus on availability of healthful choices, prices and quality

  • Goal: To determine whether the availability and quality of healthy foods in South Phoenix affects the BMIs of WIC participants in that area


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Background: South Phoenix

  • Area≈ 80 square miles

    • From 40th Street to 35th Avenue, and from Buckeye to Baseline

  • Population has:

    • Limited resources, low socioeconomic status

      • Low levels of educational attainment

    • Health disparities

    • High levels of the feto-infant mortality

      Source: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey and Perinatal Periods of Risks (PPOR) analyses, 2004


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Purpose of survey was to assess whether healthy options of various foods were available, their quality, and their costs

Foods included:

Milk

Fruit

Vegetables

Ground beef

Hot dogs

Frozen dinners

Survey Methods

  • Baked goods

  • Beverages

  • Bread

  • Baked chips

  • Cereal

  • Tortillas


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Survey Methods, continued…

  • Two students/volunteers surveyed each store 1-2 times separately

  • 5 groups, 2 surveyors/group

  • Permission obtained from managers

  • Survey period: August-November 2007

  • 76 stores surveyed, 238 surveys total

    • 66 convenient stores, 10 grocery stores

    • 17 WIC stores, 59 non-WIC stores


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Data Analysis Methods

  • Two independent sample T tests

  • Levene’s Tests for Equality of Variances

  • Geographic Information Systems (ArcGIS v 9.2)


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Results: Pre-Pregnancy BMI of WIC women in South Phoenix

  • The range for average BMI by store was 25.7 to 26.5.  

  • Fairly homogeneous population


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Results: Grocery vs. Convenience Stores

  • On average, grocery stores offered a wider variety of fruits than convenient stores


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Results: Grocery vs. Convenience Stores

  • On average, grocery stores offered a wider variety of vegetables than convenient stores


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Results: Grocery vs. Convenience Stores

  • On average, grocery stores offered better quality fruits and vegetables than convenient stores


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Results: WIC vs. Non-WIC Stores

  • On average, WIC stores offered a wider variety of fruits than non-WIC stores


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Results: WIC vs. Non-WIC Stores

  • On average, WIC stores offered a wider variety of vegetables than non-WIC stores


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Results: WIC vs. Non-WIC Stores

  • On average, WIC stores offered better quality fruits and vegetables than non-WIC stores


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Conclusions

  • BMIs of WIC participants in surveyed South Phoenix area fairly homogeneous

  • Fruit and vegetable availability and quality differed throughout surveyed area

  • Availability and quality of fruits and vegetables in South Phoenix did not affect the BMIs of WIC participants in that area

  • Possible confounding factors: consumption, foods actually purchased, transportation, other sources of fruits and vegetables in area (farms)


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Conclusions, continued…

  • New WIC food package would help to increase the varieties of fruits and vegetables available, their quality, and their affordability to WIC participants


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Challenges in survey methods

  • Information different between grocery and convenience stores

  • Possibly use different surveys for each

  • Consistent training for surveyors


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Challenges in analysis methods

  • Analyzing qualitative data

  • Performing inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability tests for validity

    • Not feasible because of:

      • Inconsistencies in data collection

      • Number of surveys per store varied

      • Inconsistencies in data entry


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Future

  • More training by Emory University

  • Overlay population density map to assess where stores are and where residents live

  • Enhance and expand survey

    • Survey area with similar demographic population to make comparisons

    • Include more grocery stores and convenience stores

    • Include restaurants in area


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Future, continued…

  • Survey residents for consumption and purchase behaviors before and after new WIC food package is implemented

  • Evaluate whether the new WIC food package would help to increase sales

  • Assess whether sales differ between WIC and non-WIC stores


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Questions/Comments?

Kai-Ning Khor, MPH

Chronic Disease Epidemiologist

E-mail: [email protected]

Phone: (602) 542-2850

Fax: (602) 542-0512


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