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Fruits and Vegetables in South Phoenix Kai-Ning Khor, MPH June 12, 2008 Overview Learning Objectives Background Survey Methods Data Analysis Methods Results Conclusion Discussion Challenges in survey methods Challenges in data analysis methods Future Learning Objectives

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fruits and vegetables in south phoenix

Fruits and Vegetables in South Phoenix

Kai-Ning Khor, MPH

June 12, 2008

overview
Overview
  • Learning Objectives
  • Background
  • Survey Methods
  • Data Analysis Methods
  • Results
  • Conclusion
  • Discussion
    • Challenges in survey methods
    • Challenges in data analysis methods
  • Future
learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Participants will be able to:
    • Describe the project Arizona’s Healthy Weight Action Learning Collaborative completed.
    • Recognize the lessons Arizona’s team learned regarding the NEMS.
    • Identify ways the fruit and vegetable availability will be affected with the new WIC food package
background
Background
  • Nutrition Environment Measures Survey (NEMS)
    • Observational measures of community nutrition environments in stores
    • Measures focus on availability of healthful choices, prices and quality
  • Goal: To determine whether the availability and quality of healthy foods in South Phoenix affects the BMIs of WIC participants in that area
background south phoenix
Background: South Phoenix
  • Area≈ 80 square miles
    • From 40th Street to 35th Avenue, and from Buckeye to Baseline
  • Population has:
      • Limited resources, low socioeconomic status
        • Low levels of educational attainment
      • Health disparities
      • High levels of the feto-infant mortality

Source: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey and Perinatal Periods of Risks (PPOR) analyses, 2004

survey methods
Purpose of survey was to assess whether healthy options of various foods were available, their quality, and their costs

Foods included:

Milk

Fruit

Vegetables

Ground beef

Hot dogs

Frozen dinners

Survey Methods
  • Baked goods
  • Beverages
  • Bread
  • Baked chips
  • Cereal
  • Tortillas
slide7

Survey Methods, continued…

  • Two students/volunteers surveyed each store 1-2 times separately
  • 5 groups, 2 surveyors/group
  • Permission obtained from managers
  • Survey period: August-November 2007
  • 76 stores surveyed, 238 surveys total
    • 66 convenient stores, 10 grocery stores
    • 17 WIC stores, 59 non-WIC stores
data analysis methods
Data Analysis Methods
  • Two independent sample T tests
  • Levene’s Tests for Equality of Variances
  • Geographic Information Systems (ArcGIS v 9.2)
results pre pregnancy bmi of wic women in south phoenix
Results: Pre-Pregnancy BMI of WIC women in South Phoenix
  • The range for average BMI by store was 25.7 to 26.5.  
  • Fairly homogeneous population
results grocery vs convenience stores
Results: Grocery vs. Convenience Stores
  • On average, grocery stores offered a wider variety of fruits than convenient stores
results grocery vs convenience stores12
Results: Grocery vs. Convenience Stores
  • On average, grocery stores offered a wider variety of vegetables than convenient stores
slide13

Results: Grocery vs. Convenience Stores

  • On average, grocery stores offered better quality fruits and vegetables than convenient stores
results wic vs non wic stores
Results: WIC vs. Non-WIC Stores
  • On average, WIC stores offered a wider variety of fruits than non-WIC stores
results wic vs non wic stores15
Results: WIC vs. Non-WIC Stores
  • On average, WIC stores offered a wider variety of vegetables than non-WIC stores
results wic vs non wic stores16
Results: WIC vs. Non-WIC Stores
  • On average, WIC stores offered better quality fruits and vegetables than non-WIC stores
conclusions
Conclusions
  • BMIs of WIC participants in surveyed South Phoenix area fairly homogeneous
  • Fruit and vegetable availability and quality differed throughout surveyed area
  • Availability and quality of fruits and vegetables in South Phoenix did not affect the BMIs of WIC participants in that area
  • Possible confounding factors: consumption, foods actually purchased, transportation, other sources of fruits and vegetables in area (farms)
conclusions continued
Conclusions, continued…
  • New WIC food package would help to increase the varieties of fruits and vegetables available, their quality, and their affordability to WIC participants
challenges in survey methods
Challenges in survey methods
  • Information different between grocery and convenience stores
  • Possibly use different surveys for each
  • Consistent training for surveyors
challenges in analysis methods
Challenges in analysis methods
  • Analyzing qualitative data
  • Performing inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability tests for validity
    • Not feasible because of:
      • Inconsistencies in data collection
      • Number of surveys per store varied
      • Inconsistencies in data entry
future
Future
  • More training by Emory University
  • Overlay population density map to assess where stores are and where residents live
  • Enhance and expand survey
    • Survey area with similar demographic population to make comparisons
    • Include more grocery stores and convenience stores
    • Include restaurants in area
future continued
Future, continued…
  • Survey residents for consumption and purchase behaviors before and after new WIC food package is implemented
  • Evaluate whether the new WIC food package would help to increase sales
  • Assess whether sales differ between WIC and non-WIC stores
questions comments
Questions/Comments?

Kai-Ning Khor, MPH

Chronic Disease Epidemiologist

E-mail: [email protected]

Phone: (602) 542-2850

Fax: (602) 542-0512

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