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Ambient Networks: Mobile Communication Beyond 3G. Guest lecture in the course Distributed Systems Uppsala University 2006-12-05. Anders Gunnar Swedish Institute of Computer Science anders.gunnar@sics.se. The Network Vision. Services and Applications. New air interface.

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ambient networks mobile communication beyond 3g

Ambient Networks: Mobile Communication Beyond 3G

Guest lecture in the course Distributed Systems Uppsala University2006-12-05

Anders Gunnar

Swedish Institute of Computer Science

anders.gunnar@sics.se

the network vision
The Network Vision

Services and

Applications

New air

interface

Downloadchannel

DAB

Wireline

DVB

xDSL

IP based core network

Networked services

cellular

WLAN

:

Return channel

GSM

IMT-2000

UMTS

Edge networks

Bluetooth, IR,

UWB, Mesh

Sensor, M2M, Dust

ambient networks strategic objectives
Ambient Networks Strategic Objectives
  • Scalable & Affordable networking supporting the dynamics of wireless access
  • Provide rich & easy to use communication services for all in a cost effective manner
  • Increase competition and dynamic cooperation of various players
  • Allow incremental market introduction of new technologies
network challenges in the wireless world
Network Challenges in the Wireless World
  • Heterogeneity
  • Terminal =========== PANs
  • Vertical =========== Horizontal layering
  • Network intelligence ==Edge
  • Cellular vs. IP
  • Multi-service, - operator, - access
  • Affordability
  • User in the centre
  • Trust Model
  • Always connected
outline
Outline
  • The Ambient Networks Concept
  • Components of the Architecture
  • Technical Solutions
      • Node ID Architecture
  • Project organisation
      • Project Partners
      • Timeline
      • Organisation
  • Summary
requirements posed on the an architecture
Requirements posed on theAN Architecture
  • Heterogeneous Networks
  • Mobility
  • Composition
  • Security and Privacy
  • Backward Compatibility and Migration
  • Network Robustness and Fault Tolerance
  • Quality of Service
  • Multi-Domain Support
  • Accountability
  • Context Communications
  • Extensibility of the Network Services Provided
  • Application Innovation and Usability
the ambient networks idea

Services

Services

Services

Ambient Control Space

Ambient Connectivity

3G

LTE

Corporate

4G

WLAN

Fixed

Community

Personal

Home

Vehicular

PAN

VAN

The Ambient Networks Idea
  • Ambient Networks:
  • Common Control Services
  • Networks at the edge
  • Auto-configuration
  • Scalability
the ambient control space

AmbientServiceInterface

AmbientConnectivity

Multi-RadioResourceManagement

ContextInformation

AmbientNetworkInterface

AmbientNetworkInterface

AdvancedMobilityManagement

OverlaySupportLayer

AmbientResourceInterface

AgreementEstablishment

Security

P2PManagement

The Ambient Control Space

Ambient Control Space

framework functions
Concurrently operating functions communicate through messages

Logically centralized registryfor information aggregationand dissemination

Conflictresolutionand consistencymaintenance

AmbientConnectivity

AmbientServiceInterface

Multi-RadioResourceManagement

ContextInformation

ResourceRegistry

ConflictResolution

MessagePassing

RoutingGroupInformation

OverlaySupportLayer

AgreementEstablishment

AmbientResourceInterface

AmbientNetworkInterface

Naming

TrafficEngineering

Framework Functions
slide11

CIB

------------

Resource

Registry

Comp.

Agreem.

---------

Policy

& AAA

Realisation Architecture of the Ambient Control Space

Ambient Applications

ASI

Composition Coordination

Bearer & OverlayManagement

INQA & SLA

Management

Composition Agreement Negotiation

Mobility

Management

Composition

Management

Active Sets

configure Onode

To other ANs

ANI

Triggers /Advertisements

Flow Management

& MRRM

NetworkManagement

Trigger & Context

Management

Security domain

Management

Connectivity Mgmt

Generic Link Layer

ARI

Ambient Connectivity

composition concepts
CompositionConcepts
  • A network composition is the negotiation and the realization of a cooperation agreement among diverse Ambient Networks.
  • Composed Ambient Networks cooperate, and appear as a single Ambient Network to the outside.
  • The composition procedure is typically plug&play.
composition networking example 1

PAN

PAN

PAN

Composition NetworkingExample 1

Ambient Networks composing to form an ad-hoc AN scenario, flat composition

composition networking example 2
Composition NetworkingExample 2

PANs compose with a moving network which provides connectivity to a cellular network

Cell.

Train

PAN

PAN

composition networking example 3

Op 1

Op 2

PAN

PAN

Composition NetworkingExample 3

Customers can roam into networks where operators have made no agreements before

an bootstrapping

Bootstrapping

Composition

ANbootstrapping
  • Ambient Network Node (ANN)
  • Embodies one or more Functional Entities of the ACS
  • It is required to implement a basic ACS, which encompasses a basic set ofFunctional Entities including plug&play management, basic security (incl. ID management), and continuous connectivity
  • Exposes a basic ANI to allow communication inside the cluster of ANNs
  • Ambient Network (AN)
  • Embodies all mandatory Functional Entities of the ACS (a minimum ACS)
  • “Composition” is a mandatory Functional Entity, which also contains the necessary AN-ID used to identify the legal entities in a Composition Agreement
  • Exposes a minimum ANI
  • An AN is required to implement a minimum ACS and a minimum ANI, but not limited to it
bootstrapping composition

Composed AN

AN

ID

AN

ANN

ANN

ANN

ANN

ANN

Basic ANI

Basic ANI

ANN

ANN

ID

ID

ANI

Bootstrapping/Composition

ID

ANN

composition processes and procedures
CompositionProcesses and Procedures
  • The process of Ambient Network Composition can be applied recursively.
    • Composed network may compose again.
    • An Ambient Networks may take part multiple different composed networks concurrently.
  • Three basic phases
    • Attachment
    • Agreement negotiation
    • Agreement implementation and maintenance
  • Procedures of composition identified so far:
    • Composition creation/ extension
    • Composition Agreement modification
    • Decomposition
goals for the node id architecture
Goals for theNode ID Architecture
  • Working across heterogeneous domains
  • Treat dynamic changes in a scalable manner
  • A consistent architecture
  • Make technologies, address domains and middleboxes first-order components of the architecture
  • Support privacy, denial-of-service protection, and an always-on security model
  • Strong incentives for migration and deployment
  • Significant benefits for adopters even during partial deployment
node id architecture overview

Applications

Transport

  • Old assumptions:
  • Point-point connectivity
  • Trusted environment
  • No mobility
  • No multi-homing
  • Best effort

OLD

IP

L2

L1

Node ID Architecture Overview

Applications

Transport

  • New assumptions:
  • Multi-point connectivity
  • Untrusted environment
  • Mobility
  • Multi-homing
  • QoS

NEW

Node

ID

IPvX/L3

L2

L1

node id arcitecture details
Node ID Arcitecture Details
  • The key design elements of the node ID architecture are
    • Independent LDs
    • Reliance on self-managed, cryptographic NIDs
    • Hybrid routing (locator+NID)
    • Router referrals to avoid a single administration
    • NID-based e2e security, privacy, and DoS-protection
    • Integrated local, e2e and network mobility
security
Security
  • Initial handshake (~ HIP) provides an always-on security model; subsequent packets are protected
  • The handshake also has basic DoS protection
  • Additionally, nodes can manage their NIDs and NID routers in a Hi3-like manner to provide network-based DoS protection
  • NIDs can be changed on the fly for privacy reasons, and NID routers provide location privacy
assumption 1
Assumption 1
  • The network consists of individual Locator Domains (LDs)
    • LD is one routing domain using (a) the same locator namespace and (b) consistent routing system
    • Within an LD nodes can freely communicate, without relying on external mechanisms

For simplicity think of AN=LD

assumption 2
Assumption 2
  • Connectivity between LDs is dynamic
    • Routing changes, multi-homing or mobility events of nodes or networks

We assume that there exists a stable core and

mobility occurs at the edge

Core network

LD4

LD2

LD3

LD1

LD13

LD5

LD6

LD11

LD10

LD7

LD9

LD12

LD8

assumption 3
Assumption 3
  • No distinction between hosts and routers
    • Traditional hosts can become routers, such as when a phone becomes the router for a PAN attached to the phone
    • Servers that act as forwarding agents for mobility purposes
hybrid routing
Hybrid Routing
  • We have routing on the LD internally (e.g. OSPF) as well as routing on NIDs by the NID routers
  • This allows us to benefit from internal routing and scales better
  • Still, handling NID routing in a completely free form topology would be challenging
  • As a result, we assume a core and default routes up; a tree-like structure emerges
  • Different routing problems in (a) edge trees (b) core

Use a routing hint to reduce routing state:

  • A hint to somewhere where the location of a Node ID is known!?
the routing hint

IPv4 Header

Node ID Header

ESP Payload

Destination = NR3

Destination NID = A

Destination NR = NR4

...

...

The Routing Hint

A hint to somewhere where the location of a Node ID is known!?

establishing connectivity
Establishing connectivity
  • DNS/Naming Resolution X
  • A.LD1.com
  • NID_A
  • NID_NR3

CN

Lookup (default path)

Registration

Core NID router lookup service (DHT, table…)

NR 4

NR 3

LD 4

LD 3

LD 6

NR 6

NR 1

LD 1

B

Well known default path

Known through registration

NR 5

NR 2

A

LD 2

LD 5

The Node ID architecture so far

mobility and multi homing

A

B

B

B

A

A

A

A

A

Mobility andMulti-homing
  • Integrates local mobility, end-to-end mobility, and network mobility
  • Even makes network-based multi-homing possible

(a)

(b)

(c)

routing enhancements
Routing Enhancements
  • Route on LD_ID’s instead of NID’s
  • Enable use of multiple paths to core
    • Capability aware routing
    • Registration vs new routing protocol
  • Disconnected operation
project partners

Alcatel

Alcatel

DaimlerChrysler

DaimlerChrysler

Ericsson

Ericsson

Elisa

Elisa

DoCoMo Eurolab

DoCoMo Eurolab

KTH

KTH

Ericsson

Ericsson

Ericsson

Ericsson

SICS

SICS

Nokia

Nokia

Fraunhofer FOKUS

Fraunhofer FOKUS

TeliaSonera

TeliaSonera

VTT

VTT

Lucent

Lucent

RWTH Aachen University

RWTH Aachen University

Telenor

Telenor

Siemens

Siemens

TU Berlin

TU Berlin

BT

BT

Univ.of Ottawa

Univ.of Ottawa

Lucent

Lucent

Concordia Univ.

Concordia Univ.

TNO

TNO

NEC

NEC

Roke Manor Research

Roke Manor Research

UCL

UCL

AGH University

AGH University

Univ. of Surrey

Univ. of Surrey

Vodafone

Vodafone

Siemens ANF Data

Siemens ANF Data

France Telecom

France Telecom

Budapest University

Budapest University

Nortel

Nortel

Ericsson

Ericsson

Critical Software

Critical Software

Siemens Austria

Siemens Austria

INESC Porto

INESC Porto

Telefonica

Telefonica

CFR

CFR

Univ. of Cantabria

Univ. of Cantabria

NICTA

NICTA

Siemens Mobile

Siemens Mobile

Vodafone

Vodafone

Univ.of South Wales

Univ.of South Wales

Greece

Greece

Project Partners

Financed by the European Commission (50%)

Budget: 20 000 000 EURO

timeline of the project

Phase 1

Phase 2

Phase 3

Phase 3

Phase 1

Phase 2

Establishing the

Establishing the

Work

Work

-

-

Areas

Areas

Technology

Technology

System Synthesis

System Synthesis

Ambient Networks

Ambient Networks

Development

Development

Concept and its

Concept and its

Feasibility

Feasibility

Architecture,

Architecture,

Concepts &

Concepts &

Architecture:

Architecture:

Standards

Standards

I: Concepts

I: Concepts

Architecture Design

Architecture Design

Scalability,

Evolvability

and

and

Architecture

Architecture

Feasibility,

Optimisation for

Detailed Specification,

II: Key

II: Key

Functions of AN

Performance

Technical Development,

Control Space

and Deployment

Performance

Technical

Problems

Problems

III: Business

III: Business

Market Dissemination

Business Interfaces

Business Feasibility

Interfaces and

Interfaces and

Commercial

Commercial

Viability

Viability

Integration across

WWI,

IV:

IV:

Validation,

Usability/Networks

Usability/Networks

Prototyping

Prototyping

Market

Prototypes

Test Cases

and Validation

and Validation

Dissemination

Timeline of the Project
summary
Summary
  • AN project provides a new networking concept
  • AN Highlights
    • Composition
    • Modular ACS
    • ASI, ANI, ARI
  • Phase 2 will provide a comprehensive A N prototype

This talk is available at :

http://www.sics.se/~aeg/talks/uppsala061205.ppt

further reading
Further Reading

Project web page:

http://www.ambient-networks.org

Deliverable:

D 1.5 AN Framework Architecture

Paper:

"A Node Identity Internetworking Architecture", Bengt Ahlgren, Jari Arkko, Lars Eggert and Jarno Rajahalme. 9th IEEE Global Internet Symposium , Barcelona, Spain, April 28-29, 2006.

master thesis project
Master thesis project

www.sics.se/cna/exjobb.html

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