A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e
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A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e. Chapter 3 PC Repair Fundamentals. PC Support Technician Tools. Help you maintain a computer Help you diagnose and repair computer problems Criteria for choosing tools: Level of PC support you expect to provide Amount of money you can spend

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A guide to managing and maintaining your pc 6e

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e

Chapter 3

PC Repair Fundamentals


Pc support technician tools
PC Support Technician Tools

  • Help you maintain a computer

  • Help you diagnose and repair computer problems

  • Criteria for choosing tools:

    • Level of PC support you expect to provide

    • Amount of money you can spend

  • Some essential tools:

    • Ground bracelet, ground mat, or ground gloves

    • Torx screwdriver set

    • Recovery CD, DVD, or floppy disk for target OS

  • Store tools in toolbox for PC troubleshooting

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Figure 3-1 PC support technician tools

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Recovery cds
Recovery CDs

  • Used to boot a system

  • Also used to repair and reinstall Windows

  • Primary recovery CD sources

    • PC manufacturer (preferred)

    • Operating system distributor, such as Microsoft

  • Some hard drives have a hidden recovery partitions

    • A hidden partition can be used to reinstall Windows

    • A utility for creating recovery CDs may be provided

    • Access hidden utilities by pressing a Fn key at startup

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Figure 3-2 Windows Setup CD and Windows Recovery CDs for a notebook computer

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Loop back plugs
Loop-Back Plugs

  • Used to test various ports

    • Some port types: serial, parallel, USB, network

  • How to use a loop-back plug

    • Plug in the loop-back plug

    • Run the software that comes with the plug

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Figure 3-3 Loop-back plugs used to test serial and parallel ports

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Cleaning pads and solutions
Cleaning Pads and Solutions

  • Various types are designed for specific uses

  • Example: contact cleaner

    • Cleans contacts on expansion cards

  • Warning: solutions may be flammable and/or toxic

  • Sources of safety and emergency instructions:

    • Side of the can of solution

    • Material safety data sheet (MSDS)

  • Adhere to safety procedures of your employer

    • Example: fill out an accident report (if required)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


How to work inside a computer case
How to Work Inside a Computer Case

  • Objective: dismantle a computer, put it back together

  • Some safety precautions to follow:

    • Make notes that will help you backtrack

    • Keep screws and spacers orderly

    • Do not stack boards on top of each other

    • Do not touch the chips on circuit boards

    • Do not use a graphite pencil to change DIP settings

    • Turn off the power, unplug and ground the computer

    • Do not remove covers of monitors or power supplies

    • Keep components away from hair and clothing

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Steps to take apart a computer
Steps to Take Apart a Computer

  • Essential tools:

    • Ground bracelet

    • Phillips-head screwdriver

    • Flat-head screwdriver, paper, and pen

  • Follow safety precautions at all times

  • Summary of Steps 1 - 4

    • 1. Enter CMOS and write down customized settings

    • 2. Power down the system, unplug all components

    • 3. Put the computer on a good-sized table

    • 4. Remove the cover of the PC

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Figure 3-19 Removing the cover

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Steps to take apart a computer continued
Steps to Take Apart a Computer (continued)

  • Summary of steps 5 - 11

    • 5. Diagram cable connections and switch settings

    • 6. Identify cables connecting drives to motherboard

    • 7. Remove the cables to all drives

    • 8. Remove the expansion cards

    • 9. Remove the motherboard (or drives)

    • 10. Remove the power supply from the case

    • 11. Remove each drive (if not already removed)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Figure 3-33 Remove the motherboard from the case

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Steps to put a computer back together
Steps to Put a Computer Back Together

  • 1. Install power supply, drives, motherboard, cards

  • 2. Connect all data and power cables

  • 3. Plug in the keyboard, monitor, and mouse

  • 4. Ask instructor to check work (if in a classroom)

  • 5. Turn on the power and check PC functions

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Understanding the boot process
Understanding the Boot Process

  • Key learning objectives

    • Know how to boot a PC

    • Understand what happens first when a PC is turned on

    • Understand how an operating system is loaded

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Booting a computer
Booting a Computer

  • Process that drives a computer to a working state

  • Hard (cold) boot: turn the power switch on

  • Soft (warm) boot: allow the OS to reboot

  • How to soft boot Windows XP

    • Click Start

    • Click Turn Off Computer

    • Click Restart

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Choosing between a hard boot and a soft boot
Choosing Between a Hard Boot and a Soft Boot

  • Hard boots are more stressful on machines

    • Power surges through system when PC is turned on

  • Reasons to choose a soft boot over hard boot

    • Less stressful on the machine

    • Faster due to skipping initial steps

  • Some computers have a soft and hard power switch

    • Soft power switch shuts down and restarts Windows

    • Hard power switch cuts power and restarts machine

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


The startup bios controls the beginning of the boot
The Startup BIOS Controls the Beginning of the Boot

  • The startup BIOS gets a system up and running

  • Four phases of the boot process:

    • BIOS runs the POST and assigns system resources

      • POST: power-on self test

    • BIOS searches for and loads an OS

    • OS configures system and completes its own loading

    • Application software is loaded and executed

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Figure 3-40 Boot Step 1: The ROM BIOS startup program surveys hardware resources and needs and assigns system resources to satisfy those needs

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Changing the boot sequence
Changing the Boot Sequence

  • BIOS looks to CMOS RAM to locate the OS

  • Boot sequence: order of drives checked for an OS

  • Change boot sequence using CMOS setup utilities

  • Access CMOS setup utilities when PC is turned on

    • Example: press F8 before Windows screen appears

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Figure 3-42 Numbered steps show how BIOS searches for and begins to load an operating system (in this example, Windows NT/2000/XP is the OS)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


My computer won t boot
My Computer Won’t Boot

  • First step: maintain your calm

  • Second step: develop a game plan

  • Figure 3-45 provides a procedure

    • Plan is driven by a set of yes-no questions

    • Example: Does the PC boot properly?

      • If no, troubleshooter is directed to another question

      • If yes, troubleshooter is directed to stop (for now)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Figure 3-45 Use this flowchart when first facing a computer problem

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Troubleshooting major subsystems used for booting
Troubleshooting Major Subsystems Used For Booting

  • Categories of troubleshooting steps in Figure 3-45

    • The electrical subsystem

    • Essential hardware devices

      • The motherboard, memory, and the CPU

    • Video

    • Reading from the hard drive

  • Key aides: tables identifying error codes

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


Table 3-4 Beep codes and their meanings

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e


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