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Welcome to Class . Dr. Brennan. Interpreting. Interpreting messages requires knowledge, social sensitivity, and an authentic concern for others. Interpreting. Empathy – What is it?. Interpreting. Empathy – 3 types Cognitive Aspect – In the mind of another.

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interpreting
Interpreting
  • Interpreting messages requires knowledge, social sensitivity, and an authentic concern for others.
interpreting1
Interpreting
  • Empathy – What is it?
interpreting2
Interpreting
  • Empathy – 3 types
    • Cognitive Aspect – In the mind of another.
    • Perceptive Aspect – Sensitivity to Nonverbal Cues.
    • Behavioral Aspect – Your ability to demonstrate verbally and nonverbally that you are listening.
interpreting3
Interpreting
  • Empathy requires reciprocity – no one way street!
interpreting4
Interpreting
  • Emotional Intelligence – EQ
    • Interpreting messages requires knowledge, social sensitivity, and an authentic concern for others.
  • Nonverbal Cues – Reading others
coordinated management of meaning cmm by w barnett pearce vernon e cronen
COORDINATED MANAGEMENT OF MEANING -CMMby W. Barnett Pearce & Vernon E. Cronen
  • Pearce and Cronen (1980) state in their theory that people develop meanings of themselves and the world through the information they have listened to and processed.
  • This information is processed and achieved at various levels that are hierarchically organized and affects communication by content, stage sets, scripts, and episodes.
  • The hierarchical levels of meaning are as follows, from lowest to highest:
the coordinated management of meaning hierarchies of meaning model
The Coordinated Management of Meaning: Hierarchies of meaning model

Life Scripts

Episodes

Speech Acts

Construction Systems

Constructs

(raw sensory data)

level one constructions
Level One: "CONSTRUCTIONS"

Constructions (from raw data) are the cognitive process by which individuals organize and interpret the world as perceived.

level two construction systems
Level Two: "CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS"
  • Construction systems are the beliefs, values, attitudes, and purposes produced by the constructs organized into clusters that allow people to interpret meaning.
level three speech acts
Level Three: "SPEECH ACTS"
  • Speech acts are the "things" one person does to another by saying something that is interpreted as an interpersonal exchange of meaning.
  • Ex: “You are beautiful” counts as the speech act “compliment” or “You’re an idiot” is an insult.
level four episodes
Level Four: "EPISODES"
  • Episodes are communicative routines which are viewed as distinct wholes, separate from other types of discourse, characterized by special rules of speech.
  • Episodes appear as patterned sequences of speech acts and establish the fields in which rules governing speech acts exists.
  • Episodes provided the content and context of speech acts (e.g., “friendly chat or personal evaluation”).
level five life scripts
Level Five: "LIFE SCRIPTS"
  • Life scripts are categorized episodes comprising what a person perceives as identified with her/himself.
  • Ex: Christian movements may provide a new life-script to an individual through a revolutionary experience.
the coordinated management of meaning hierarchies of meaning model1
The Coordinated Management of Meaning: Hierarchies of meaning model

Life Scripts

Episodes

Speech Acts

Construction Systems

Constructs

(raw sensory data)

listening and nonverbal communication
Listening and Nonverbal Communication
  • What is nonverbal communication?
nonverbal communication
Nonverbal Communication
  • What is nonverbal communication?
  • The information we communicate without using words.
researchers have suggested
Researchers have suggested:
  • That as much as 93% of communication is nonverbal.
  • 55% of communication is sent through facial expressions, posture and gestures.
  • 38% of communication is sent through tone of voice.
nonverbal and listening
Nonverbal and listening:
  • We are going to go over how we can be more receptive of what our conversation partner or audience is communicating to us nonverbally.
nonverbal and listening1
Nonverbal and listening:
  • BEWARE: No one can become a perfect interpreter of the nonverbal communication of others. It is unwise and inappropriate to assume that you can become an infallible judge of others’ because people are unique, complicated, and ever changing creatures.
as we discuss nonverbal communication hopefully you will
As we discuss nonverbal communication, hopefully you will:

1. Deepen your understanding of nonverbal communication

2. Sharpen your powers of observation

    • Develop greater skill in interpreting the

meanings behind others’ nonverbal communication.

  • At the same time, you should remain keenly aware of the idiosyncratic and complex nature of nonverbal communication.
how are you at reading nonverbal cues and listening to
How are you at reading nonverbal cues and listening to:
  • Parents
  • Siblings
  • Friends
  • Significant Other
  • Children
  • Other
nonverbal communication listening with the eyes
Nonverbal Communication & Listening with the Eyes

Eye Communication

  • Gaze
  • Duration of Eye Contact
  • Direction of Eye Contact
  • Wideness or Narrowness of Eyes

Microsoft Image

nonverbal communication1
Nonverbal Communication

Functions of Eye Contact

  • Seeking Feedback
  • Opening Communication
  • Signaling Nature of Relationship
  • Lessening Physical Distance
nonverbal communication2
Nonverbal Communication

Functions of Eye Avoidance

  • Help Others Maintain Privacy
  • Signal Lack of Interest
  • Block Unpleasant Stimuli
  • Enhance Other Senses

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nonverbal communication3
Nonverbal Communication

Eye Communication - Pupil Dilation

  • Dilated Pupils More Attractive
  • Pupil Size Reveals Level of Emotional Arousal
eye communication deception
Eye Communication – Deception:
  • One thing that can be of particular interest in terms of argumentation/persuasion, is trying to determine if someone is being honest with you.
  • Many people identify various behaviors as indicating deception.
  • Often, our assumptions of what is deceptive behavior is actually not.
eye communication deception1
Eye Communication – Deception:
  • There are several factors that affect our ability to correctly detect deception.
eye communication deception2
Eye Communication – Deception:

In a 1985 study by DePaulo stated that people identified gazing less, smiling less, shifting posture more, speaking slowly, and taking a long time to answer as indications of deception.

how do liars behave
How do liars behave?
  • According to research done 1985 by DePaulo, 1980 by Kraut, and 1985 by Zuckerman & Driver: Some of the behaviors liars have exhibited are:

1. Blinks: Liars blinked more often than people telling the truth.

how do liars behave1
How do liars behave?

2. Adaptors: Liars moved their hands more (fidgeted, scratched, rubbed themselves) when giving responses.

3. Speech Errors: Liars made more errors when speaking than did truth tellers.

4. Message Duration: Liars messages were more brief than were truth tellers’ messages.

5. Pupil Dilation: Liars’ pupils are more dilated than are the pupils of truth tellers.

how do liars behave2
How do liars behave?

6. Irrelevant information: Liars include less relevant material in their responses when compared to truth tellers.

7. Negative statements: Liars’ responses contain more negative expressions than truth tellers’ responses.

8. Shrugs: Liars shrug more than truth tellers

9. Immediacy: Liars are less involved in their communication.

how do liars behave3
How do liars behave?

10. Pitch: Liars’ vocal pitch is more anxious than truth tellers’ vocal pitch.

11. Hesitations: Liars, compared to truth tellers, hesitate more when communicating.

12. Leveling: Liars use more leveling terms than truth tellers (i.e., make more over-generalized statements).

13. Message discrepancy: Liars’ messages contain more discrepancies than truth tellers’ messages.

how do liars behave4
How do liars behave?

14. Increased eye contact: As strange as it may seem, someone that is being deceptive usually will have increased eye contact.

15. Not supported by research, just a theory now: Eye gaze to the speaker’s right (the receiver\'s left) when being deceptive (toward the “creative side of the brain”) means they are lying. An interesting theory, but again not proven as yet.

types of nonverbal communication
Types of Nonverbal communication
  • Paralanguage – the way we say something.
  • Rate – speed at which one speaks can have an effect on the way a message is received. People speak at rates that vary from 125 words per minute to 200+ wpm.
  • Scholars argue that the faster someone speaks the more competent they seem. Of course, the listener may not be able to understand what the speaker is saying.
types of nonverbal communication1
Types of Nonverbal communication
  • Paralanguage – the way we say something.
  • Pitch – highness and lowness of the voice. Some people feel high-pitched voices are not very pleasant, but low-pitched voices are seen as insecure or shy.
types of nonverbal communication2
Types of Nonverbal communication
  • Paralanguage – the way we say something.
  • Volume – Loud/soft level of vocal quality.
  • Vocal Fillers – Non words such as “uh”, “er”, “um”, “you know”, “okay.”
  • Vocal fillers give the connotation that we are stuck or searching for the right word. If used too much it becomes distracting.
types of nonverbal communication3
Types of Nonverbal communication
  • Paralanguage – the way we say something.
  • Quality – Rhythm, articulation, pronunciation, tempo and resonance.
  • Good quality demonstrates competency, honesty and power.
types of nonverbal communication4
Types of Nonverbal communication

The Body - Body Movement

  • Emblems
  • Illustrators
  • Affect Displays
  • Regulators
  • Adaptors

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types of nonverbal communication5
Types of Nonverbal communication

The Body - Body Movement

  • Emblems: Have a direct translation into words. Does not cross cultures.

Example:

1. “Thumb up” = hitchhiker or good luck.

2. Circle made with thumb and index finger =

okay.

types of nonverbal communication6
Types of Nonverbal communication

The Body - Body Movement

  • Illustrators: Accents, emphasizes or reinforces words.

Example: Giving directions while pointing or

showing how big or how wide.

types of nonverbal communication7
Types of Nonverbal communication

The Body - Body Movement

  • Affect Displays: Intensity of feelings shown through our facial expressions and body movement.

Example: fist on desk

types of nonverbal communication8
Types of Nonverbal communication

The Body - Body Movement

  • Regulators: Control the back and forth flow of speaking and listening; head nods, hand gestures and shifts in posture.
types of nonverbal communication9
Types of Nonverbal communication

The Body - Body Movement

  • Adaptors: Nonverbal ways of adjusting to a communication situation. Often used if nervous or uncomfortable in a situation. Often done unconsciously.
nonverbal communication4
Nonverbal Communication

The Body - Body Appearance

  • Height and Weight
  • Race
  • General Attractiveness

Microsoft Image

nonverbal communication5
Nonverbal Communication

Facial Communication

  • Communicates Emotion
  • Primary Affect Displays
  • Affect Blends

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nonverbal communication6
Nonverbal Communication

Facial Management Techniques

  • Intensify
  • Deintensify
  • Neutralize
  • Mask
  • Simulate

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nonverbal communication7
Nonverbal Communication

Space Communication - Proxemics

  • Spatial Distances
    • Intimate 0 - 18 in.
    • Personal 18 in.- 4 feet
    • Social 4 feet – 12 feet
    • Public 12 feet - 25+ feet
nonverbal communication8
Nonverbal Communication

Influences on Space Communication

  • Gender
  • Age
  • Personality
  • Familiarity

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nonverbal communication9
Nonverbal Communication

Artifactual Communication

  • Color
  • Clothing and Body Adornment
  • Space Decoration

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body adornment
Body Adornment
  • Hair Color and Style
  • Make-up
  • Tattoos
  • Piercing
  • Jewelry
nonverbal communication10
Nonverbal Communication

Touch Communication

  • Touch (haptics) is very important for babies and people of all ages .

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touch communication 5 categories
Touch Communication – 5 categories:

1. Functional professional touch – has a specific reason. Example: doctor’s office

2. Social polite touch – acknowledge someone else. Example: handshake

3. Friendship warmth touch – hugs between friends.

4. Love-intimacy touch – usually between parent-child and lovers.

5. Arousal touch – used as expression attraction.

nonverbal cues communicate attitudes
Nonverbal cues communicate attitudes.
  • Defensiveness:
      • Crossed arms or legs
      • Pointed finger
  • Evaluative:
      • Shaking finger
      • Hands on hips
  • Insecurity:
      • Fidgeting w/ jewelry, pen, etc.
      • Chewing on pen
nonverbal cues communicate attitudes1
Nonverbal cues communicate attitudes.
  • Confidence:
      • Hands at sides or behind back.
      • Shoulders back.
  • Nervousness
      • Clearing throat.
      • Lack of eye contact.
  • Frustration
      • Short fast breath
      • Biting lip
nonverbal communication11
Nonverbal Communication

Touch Communication

  • Meanings
    • Positive Feelings
    • Intention to Play
    • Control Behavior
    • Greeting and Departure
    • Task-Related
  • Touch Avoidance

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touch communication
Touch Communication:
  • Touch increases mental and physical functioning, self-disclosure and compliance and tips for waiters and waitresses.
  • Non-touchers: China, Japan, Korea
  • Touchers: Italy, France, Mexico
  • Neutral: USA, Germany
nonverbal communication12
Nonverbal Communication

Time

  • Chronemics = the study of time
  • Emphasis on Past, Present, or Future
  • Cultural Time Perspectives
  • Monochronemic - fixed
  • Polychronemic – not fixed

Microsoft Image

nonverbal communication13
Nonverbal Communication

Smell – Olfactory

  • Attraction Messages
  • Taste Messages
  • Memory Messages
  • Identification Messages

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nonverbal communication14
Nonverbal Communication

Territoriality

  • Primary Territories
  • Secondary Territories
  • Public Territories
  • Territorial Markers
    • Central Markers
    • Boundary Markers
    • Earmarkers

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types of territoriality
Types of territoriality:
  • Primary territory – your exclusive areas.
  • E.g. your desk, room, house, etc.
    • In these areas you are in control and have great influence over others.
types of territoriality1
Types of territoriality:
  • Secondary territory – Areas that do not belong to you, but because you have occupied them for a period of time, they are associated or assigned to you.
  • E.g. desk at work or in classroom, a certain spot in the cafeteria, a certain table at the restaurant. Spots or areas you have or feel a certain ownership-like attachment.
types of territoriality2
Types of territoriality:
  • Public territory – Public areas that are open to all people.
  • E.g. park, movie theater, restaurant, beach, etc.
territorial markers
Territorial Markers
  • Central markers – items you place in a territory to reserve it.
  • E.g. books on your desk or a sweater on a chair to let others know it’s yours.
territorial markers1
Territorial Markers
  • Boundary markers – divides your territory from others.
    • Examples: At the supermarket line, you place the bar between your items and another’s.
    • Arm rests in the movie theater.
territorial markers2
Territorial Markers
  • Earmarkers – taken from the practice of branding animals on their ears, are those identifying marks that indicate your possession of a territory or an object.
  • E.g. trademarks, name plates and initials on shirts or briefcases.
territorial encroachment 3 types
Territorial Encroachment – 3 types:
  • Violation - Most extreme and causes “turf defense.”
  • When you cannot tolerate intruders you may choose to defend your territory and expel the intruders.
    • We see this with gangs defending their streets or neighborhood by fighting other gangs.
territorial encroachment 3 types1
Territorial Encroachment – 3 types:
  • A less extreme is insulation – a strategy where you set up a barrier of some type between your self and the invaders.
    • Some people will do this with sunglasses to avoid eye contact.
    • Others put up fences in their yards or partitions at the office.
territorial encroachment 3 types2
Territorial Encroachment – 3 types:
  • Contamination – using, disturbing, breaking, and moving someone else property and/or space. Can also include adding your belongings to another.
    • Examples: Working at someone’s desk when they are not present.
    • Home is robbed or car is broken into and items destroyed or stolen.
    • Placing a jacket on someone’s chair.
nonverbal communication15
Nonverbal Communication

Integrating Verbal and Nonverbal

  • 1. Nonverbal Cues Accent What A Person Is Saying.
    • For example, pointing when giving someone directions; tone of voice, energy, posture.
nonverbal communication16
Nonverbal Communication

Integrating Verbal and Nonverbal

  • 2. Nonverbal Cues Complement Verbal Messages By Adding Meaning.
    • For example: “I’m sorry” = pat on the back or “I love you” = hug the person
nonverbal communication17
Nonverbal Communication

Integrating Verbal and Nonverbal

  • 3. Nonverbal Cues Contradict Verbal Messages.
    • Intentional – cross your fingers or winking to indicate that you are lying
    • Unintentional – child falls and scrapes his/her knee grabbing the knee, with tears in eyes saying, “I’m ok!”
nonverbal communication18
Nonverbal Communication

Integrating Verbal and Nonverbal

  • 4. Nonverbal Cues Regulate Also “Regulate” Verbal Communication.
    • Example: During a conversation with your boss you can tell the conversation is coming to an end when your boss stands up out of his/her chair or shifts papers on the desk.
nonverbal communication19
Nonverbal Communication

Integrating Verbal and Nonverbal

  • 5. Nonverbal Cues Repeat Verbal Messages.
    • Example: With raised eyebrows and a questioning look or motion with your head or hand and repeat your verbal message, “Are you alright?”
nonverbal communication20
Nonverbal Communication

Integrating Verbal and Nonverbal

  • 6. Nonverbal Cues Substitute For Verbal Messages.
    • Example: You get a dirty look from your significant other when you arrive home late.
    • You send balloons and flowers to that someone special.
    • Neighbor waves as you pull out of the driveway.
behaviors that say i ll listen
WARM BEHAVIORS

Direct eye contact

Touching

Smiling

Nods

Eyes wide open

Forward lean

Positive facial expression

COLD BEHAVIORS

Stare

Fake yawn

Looking away

Nervous habits, fidgeting

Shaking head – Neg.

Moving away from speaker

Neg. facial expression

Behaviors that say, “I’ll Listen”
interpreting5
Interpreting
  • Verbal and nonverbal dimensions interrelate allowing individuals to become more empathetic listeners to increase their social sensitivity, self-awareness, and self-monitoring skill in gathering information on people’s attitudes, feelings and ideas, this is interpretation.
how are you at reading nonverbal cues and listening to1
How are you at reading nonverbal cues and listening to:
  • Parents
  • Siblings
  • Friends
  • Significant Other
  • Children
  • Other
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