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Welcome to Class . Dr. Brennan. Interpreting. Interpreting messages requires knowledge, social sensitivity, and an authentic concern for others. Interpreting. Empathy – What is it?. Interpreting. Empathy – 3 types Cognitive Aspect – In the mind of another.

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Welcome to class
Welcome to Class

  • Dr. Brennan


Interpreting
Interpreting

  • Interpreting messages requires knowledge, social sensitivity, and an authentic concern for others.


Interpreting1
Interpreting

  • Empathy – What is it?


Interpreting2
Interpreting

  • Empathy – 3 types

    • Cognitive Aspect – In the mind of another.

    • Perceptive Aspect – Sensitivity to Nonverbal Cues.

    • Behavioral Aspect – Your ability to demonstrate verbally and nonverbally that you are listening.


Interpreting3
Interpreting

  • Empathy requires reciprocity – no one way street!


Interpreting4
Interpreting

  • Emotional Intelligence – EQ

    • Interpreting messages requires knowledge, social sensitivity, and an authentic concern for others.

  • Nonverbal Cues – Reading others


Coordinated management of meaning cmm by w barnett pearce vernon e cronen
COORDINATED MANAGEMENT OF MEANING -CMMby W. Barnett Pearce & Vernon E. Cronen

  • Pearce and Cronen (1980) state in their theory that people develop meanings of themselves and the world through the information they have listened to and processed.

  • This information is processed and achieved at various levels that are hierarchically organized and affects communication by content, stage sets, scripts, and episodes.

  • The hierarchical levels of meaning are as follows, from lowest to highest:


The coordinated management of meaning hierarchies of meaning model
The Coordinated Management of Meaning: Hierarchies of meaning model

Life Scripts

Episodes

Speech Acts

Construction Systems

Constructs

(raw sensory data)


Level one constructions
Level One: "CONSTRUCTIONS" meaning model

Constructions (from raw data) are the cognitive process by which individuals organize and interpret the world as perceived.


Level two construction systems
Level Two: "CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS" meaning model

  • Construction systems are the beliefs, values, attitudes, and purposes produced by the constructs organized into clusters that allow people to interpret meaning.


Level three speech acts
Level Three: "SPEECH ACTS" meaning model

  • Speech acts are the "things" one person does to another by saying something that is interpreted as an interpersonal exchange of meaning.

  • Ex: “You are beautiful” counts as the speech act “compliment” or “You’re an idiot” is an insult.


Level four episodes
Level Four: "EPISODES" meaning model

  • Episodes are communicative routines which are viewed as distinct wholes, separate from other types of discourse, characterized by special rules of speech.

  • Episodes appear as patterned sequences of speech acts and establish the fields in which rules governing speech acts exists.

  • Episodes provided the content and context of speech acts (e.g., “friendly chat or personal evaluation”).


Level five life scripts
Level Five: "LIFE SCRIPTS" meaning model

  • Life scripts are categorized episodes comprising what a person perceives as identified with her/himself.

  • Ex: Christian movements may provide a new life-script to an individual through a revolutionary experience.


The coordinated management of meaning hierarchies of meaning model1
The Coordinated Management of Meaning: Hierarchies of meaning model

Life Scripts

Episodes

Speech Acts

Construction Systems

Constructs

(raw sensory data)


Listening and nonverbal communication
Listening and Nonverbal Communication meaning model

  • What is nonverbal communication?


Nonverbal communication
Nonverbal Communication meaning model

  • What is nonverbal communication?

  • The information we communicate without using words.


Researchers have suggested
Researchers have suggested: meaning model

  • That as much as 93% of communication is nonverbal.

  • 55% of communication is sent through facial expressions, posture and gestures.

  • 38% of communication is sent through tone of voice.


Nonverbal and listening
Nonverbal and listening: meaning model

  • We are going to go over how we can be more receptive of what our conversation partner or audience is communicating to us nonverbally.


Nonverbal and listening1
Nonverbal and listening: meaning model

  • BEWARE: No one can become a perfect interpreter of the nonverbal communication of others. It is unwise and inappropriate to assume that you can become an infallible judge of others’ because people are unique, complicated, and ever changing creatures.


As we discuss nonverbal communication hopefully you will
As we discuss nonverbal communication, hopefully you will: meaning model

1. Deepen your understanding of nonverbal communication

2. Sharpen your powers of observation

  • Develop greater skill in interpreting the

    meanings behind others’ nonverbal communication.

  • At the same time, you should remain keenly aware of the idiosyncratic and complex nature of nonverbal communication.


  • How are you at reading nonverbal cues and listening to
    How are you at reading nonverbal cues and listening to: meaning model

    • Parents

    • Siblings

    • Friends

    • Significant Other

    • Children

    • Other


    Nonverbal communication listening with the eyes
    Nonverbal Communication & Listening with the Eyes meaning model

    Eye Communication

    • Gaze

    • Duration of Eye Contact

    • Direction of Eye Contact

    • Wideness or Narrowness of Eyes

    Microsoft Image


    Nonverbal communication1
    Nonverbal Communication meaning model

    Functions of Eye Contact

    • Seeking Feedback

    • Opening Communication

    • Signaling Nature of Relationship

    • Lessening Physical Distance


    Nonverbal communication2
    Nonverbal Communication meaning model

    Functions of Eye Avoidance

    • Help Others Maintain Privacy

    • Signal Lack of Interest

    • Block Unpleasant Stimuli

    • Enhance Other Senses

    Microsoft Image


    Nonverbal communication3
    Nonverbal Communication meaning model

    Eye Communication - Pupil Dilation

    • Dilated Pupils More Attractive

    • Pupil Size Reveals Level of Emotional Arousal


    Eye communication deception
    Eye Communication – Deception: meaning model

    • One thing that can be of particular interest in terms of argumentation/persuasion, is trying to determine if someone is being honest with you.

    • Many people identify various behaviors as indicating deception.

    • Often, our assumptions of what is deceptive behavior is actually not.


    Eye communication deception1
    Eye Communication – Deception: meaning model

    • There are several factors that affect our ability to correctly detect deception.


    Eye communication deception2
    Eye Communication – Deception: meaning model

    In a 1985 study by DePaulo stated that people identified gazing less, smiling less, shifting posture more, speaking slowly, and taking a long time to answer as indications of deception.


    How do liars behave
    How do liars behave? meaning model

    • According to research done 1985 by DePaulo, 1980 by Kraut, and 1985 by Zuckerman & Driver: Some of the behaviors liars have exhibited are:

      1. Blinks: Liars blinked more often than people telling the truth.


    How do liars behave1
    How do liars behave? meaning model

    2. Adaptors: Liars moved their hands more (fidgeted, scratched, rubbed themselves) when giving responses.

    3. Speech Errors: Liars made more errors when speaking than did truth tellers.

    4. Message Duration: Liars messages were more brief than were truth tellers’ messages.

    5. Pupil Dilation: Liars’ pupils are more dilated than are the pupils of truth tellers.


    How do liars behave2
    How do liars behave? meaning model

    6. Irrelevant information: Liars include less relevant material in their responses when compared to truth tellers.

    7. Negative statements: Liars’ responses contain more negative expressions than truth tellers’ responses.

    8. Shrugs: Liars shrug more than truth tellers

    9. Immediacy: Liars are less involved in their communication.


    How do liars behave3
    How do liars behave? meaning model

    10. Pitch: Liars’ vocal pitch is more anxious than truth tellers’ vocal pitch.

    11. Hesitations: Liars, compared to truth tellers, hesitate more when communicating.

    12. Leveling: Liars use more leveling terms than truth tellers (i.e., make more over-generalized statements).

    13. Message discrepancy: Liars’ messages contain more discrepancies than truth tellers’ messages.


    How do liars behave4
    How do liars behave? meaning model

    14. Increased eye contact: As strange as it may seem, someone that is being deceptive usually will have increased eye contact.

    15. Not supported by research, just a theory now: Eye gaze to the speaker’s right (the receiver's left) when being deceptive (toward the “creative side of the brain”) means they are lying. An interesting theory, but again not proven as yet.


    Types of nonverbal communication
    Types of Nonverbal communication meaning model

    • Paralanguage – the way we say something.

    • Rate – speed at which one speaks can have an effect on the way a message is received. People speak at rates that vary from 125 words per minute to 200+ wpm.

    • Scholars argue that the faster someone speaks the more competent they seem. Of course, the listener may not be able to understand what the speaker is saying.


    Types of nonverbal communication1
    Types of Nonverbal communication meaning model

    • Paralanguage – the way we say something.

    • Pitch – highness and lowness of the voice. Some people feel high-pitched voices are not very pleasant, but low-pitched voices are seen as insecure or shy.


    Types of nonverbal communication2
    Types of Nonverbal communication meaning model

    • Paralanguage – the way we say something.

    • Volume – Loud/soft level of vocal quality.

    • Vocal Fillers – Non words such as “uh”, “er”, “um”, “you know”, “okay.”

    • Vocal fillers give the connotation that we are stuck or searching for the right word. If used too much it becomes distracting.


    Types of nonverbal communication3
    Types of Nonverbal communication meaning model

    • Paralanguage – the way we say something.

    • Quality – Rhythm, articulation, pronunciation, tempo and resonance.

    • Good quality demonstrates competency, honesty and power.


    Types of nonverbal communication4
    Types of Nonverbal communication meaning model

    The Body - Body Movement

    • Emblems

    • Illustrators

    • Affect Displays

    • Regulators

    • Adaptors

    Microsoft Image


    Types of nonverbal communication5
    Types of Nonverbal communication meaning model

    The Body - Body Movement

    • Emblems: Have a direct translation into words. Does not cross cultures.

      Example:

      1. “Thumb up” = hitchhiker or good luck.

      2. Circle made with thumb and index finger =

      okay.


    Types of nonverbal communication6
    Types of Nonverbal communication meaning model

    The Body - Body Movement

    • Illustrators: Accents, emphasizes or reinforces words.

      Example: Giving directions while pointing or

      showing how big or how wide.


    Types of nonverbal communication7
    Types of Nonverbal communication meaning model

    The Body - Body Movement

    • Affect Displays: Intensity of feelings shown through our facial expressions and body movement.

      Example: fist on desk


    Types of nonverbal communication8
    Types of Nonverbal communication meaning model

    The Body - Body Movement

    • Regulators: Control the back and forth flow of speaking and listening; head nods, hand gestures and shifts in posture.


    Types of nonverbal communication9
    Types of Nonverbal communication meaning model

    The Body - Body Movement

    • Adaptors: Nonverbal ways of adjusting to a communication situation. Often used if nervous or uncomfortable in a situation. Often done unconsciously.


    Nonverbal communication4
    Nonverbal Communication meaning model

    The Body - Body Appearance

    • Height and Weight

    • Race

    • General Attractiveness

    Microsoft Image


    Nonverbal communication5
    Nonverbal Communication meaning model

    Facial Communication

    • Communicates Emotion

    • Primary Affect Displays

    • Affect Blends

    Microsoft Image


    Nonverbal communication6
    Nonverbal Communication meaning model

    Facial Management Techniques

    • Intensify

    • Deintensify

    • Neutralize

    • Mask

    • Simulate

    Microsoft Image


    Nonverbal communication7
    Nonverbal Communication meaning model

    Space Communication - Proxemics

    • Spatial Distances

      • Intimate 0 - 18 in.

      • Personal 18 in.- 4 feet

      • Social 4 feet – 12 feet

      • Public 12 feet - 25+ feet


    Nonverbal communication8
    Nonverbal Communication meaning model

    Influences on Space Communication

    • Gender

    • Age

    • Personality

    • Familiarity

    Microsoft Image


    Nonverbal communication9
    Nonverbal Communication meaning model

    Artifactual Communication

    • Color

    • Clothing and Body Adornment

    • Space Decoration

    Microsoft Image


    Body adornment
    Body Adornment meaning model

    • Hair Color and Style

    • Make-up

    • Tattoos

    • Piercing

    • Jewelry


    Nonverbal communication10
    Nonverbal Communication meaning model

    Touch Communication

    • Touch (haptics) is very important for babies and people of all ages .

    Microsoft Image


    Touch communication 5 categories
    Touch Communication – 5 categories: meaning model

    1. Functional professional touch – has a specific reason. Example: doctor’s office

    2. Social polite touch – acknowledge someone else. Example: handshake

    3. Friendship warmth touch – hugs between friends.

    4. Love-intimacy touch – usually between parent-child and lovers.

    5. Arousal touch – used as expression attraction.


    Nonverbal cues communicate attitudes
    Nonverbal cues communicate attitudes. meaning model

    • Defensiveness:

      • Crossed arms or legs

      • Pointed finger

  • Evaluative:

    • Shaking finger

    • Hands on hips

  • Insecurity:

    • Fidgeting w/ jewelry, pen, etc.

    • Chewing on pen


  • Nonverbal cues communicate attitudes1
    Nonverbal cues communicate attitudes. meaning model

    • Confidence:

      • Hands at sides or behind back.

      • Shoulders back.

  • Nervousness

    • Clearing throat.

    • Lack of eye contact.

  • Frustration

    • Short fast breath

    • Biting lip


  • Nonverbal communication11
    Nonverbal Communication meaning model

    Touch Communication

    • Meanings

      • Positive Feelings

      • Intention to Play

      • Control Behavior

      • Greeting and Departure

      • Task-Related

    • Touch Avoidance

    Microsoft Image


    Touch communication
    Touch Communication: meaning model

    • Touch increases mental and physical functioning, self-disclosure and compliance and tips for waiters and waitresses.

    • Non-touchers: China, Japan, Korea

    • Touchers: Italy, France, Mexico

    • Neutral: USA, Germany


    Nonverbal communication12
    Nonverbal Communication meaning model

    Time

    • Chronemics = the study of time

    • Emphasis on Past, Present, or Future

    • Cultural Time Perspectives

    • Monochronemic - fixed

    • Polychronemic – not fixed

    Microsoft Image


    Nonverbal communication13
    Nonverbal Communication meaning model

    Smell – Olfactory

    • Attraction Messages

    • Taste Messages

    • Memory Messages

    • Identification Messages

    Microsoft Image


    Nonverbal communication14
    Nonverbal Communication meaning model

    Territoriality

    • Primary Territories

    • Secondary Territories

    • Public Territories

    • Territorial Markers

      • Central Markers

      • Boundary Markers

      • Earmarkers

    Microsoft Image


    Types of territoriality
    Types of territoriality: meaning model

    • Primary territory – your exclusive areas.

    • E.g. your desk, room, house, etc.

      • In these areas you are in control and have great influence over others.


    Types of territoriality1
    Types of territoriality: meaning model

    • Secondary territory – Areas that do not belong to you, but because you have occupied them for a period of time, they are associated or assigned to you.

    • E.g. desk at work or in classroom, a certain spot in the cafeteria, a certain table at the restaurant. Spots or areas you have or feel a certain ownership-like attachment.


    Types of territoriality2
    Types of territoriality: meaning model

    • Public territory – Public areas that are open to all people.

    • E.g. park, movie theater, restaurant, beach, etc.


    Territorial markers
    Territorial Markers meaning model

    • Central markers – items you place in a territory to reserve it.

    • E.g. books on your desk or a sweater on a chair to let others know it’s yours.


    Territorial markers1
    Territorial Markers meaning model

    • Boundary markers – divides your territory from others.

      • Examples: At the supermarket line, you place the bar between your items and another’s.

      • Arm rests in the movie theater.


    Territorial markers2
    Territorial Markers meaning model

    • Earmarkers – taken from the practice of branding animals on their ears, are those identifying marks that indicate your possession of a territory or an object.

    • E.g. trademarks, name plates and initials on shirts or briefcases.


    Territorial encroachment 3 types
    Territorial Encroachment – 3 types: meaning model

    • Violation - Most extreme and causes “turf defense.”

    • When you cannot tolerate intruders you may choose to defend your territory and expel the intruders.

      • We see this with gangs defending their streets or neighborhood by fighting other gangs.


    Territorial encroachment 3 types1
    Territorial Encroachment – 3 types: meaning model

    • A less extreme is insulation – a strategy where you set up a barrier of some type between your self and the invaders.

      • Some people will do this with sunglasses to avoid eye contact.

      • Others put up fences in their yards or partitions at the office.


    Territorial encroachment 3 types2
    Territorial Encroachment – 3 types: meaning model

    • Contamination – using, disturbing, breaking, and moving someone else property and/or space. Can also include adding your belongings to another.

      • Examples: Working at someone’s desk when they are not present.

      • Home is robbed or car is broken into and items destroyed or stolen.

      • Placing a jacket on someone’s chair.


    Nonverbal communication15
    Nonverbal Communication meaning model

    Integrating Verbal and Nonverbal

    • 1. Nonverbal Cues Accent What A Person Is Saying.

      • For example, pointing when giving someone directions; tone of voice, energy, posture.


    Nonverbal communication16
    Nonverbal Communication meaning model

    Integrating Verbal and Nonverbal

    • 2. Nonverbal Cues Complement Verbal Messages By Adding Meaning.

      • For example: “I’m sorry” = pat on the back or “I love you” = hug the person


    Nonverbal communication17
    Nonverbal Communication meaning model

    Integrating Verbal and Nonverbal

    • 3. Nonverbal Cues Contradict Verbal Messages.

      • Intentional – cross your fingers or winking to indicate that you are lying

      • Unintentional – child falls and scrapes his/her knee grabbing the knee, with tears in eyes saying, “I’m ok!”


    Nonverbal communication18
    Nonverbal Communication meaning model

    Integrating Verbal and Nonverbal

    • 4. Nonverbal Cues Regulate Also “Regulate” Verbal Communication.

      • Example: During a conversation with your boss you can tell the conversation is coming to an end when your boss stands up out of his/her chair or shifts papers on the desk.


    Nonverbal communication19
    Nonverbal Communication meaning model

    Integrating Verbal and Nonverbal

    • 5. Nonverbal Cues Repeat Verbal Messages.

      • Example: With raised eyebrows and a questioning look or motion with your head or hand and repeat your verbal message, “Are you alright?”


    Nonverbal communication20
    Nonverbal Communication meaning model

    Integrating Verbal and Nonverbal

    • 6. Nonverbal Cues Substitute For Verbal Messages.

      • Example: You get a dirty look from your significant other when you arrive home late.

      • You send balloons and flowers to that someone special.

      • Neighbor waves as you pull out of the driveway.


    Behaviors that say i ll listen

    WARM BEHAVIORS meaning model

    Direct eye contact

    Touching

    Smiling

    Nods

    Eyes wide open

    Forward lean

    Positive facial expression

    COLD BEHAVIORS

    Stare

    Fake yawn

    Looking away

    Nervous habits, fidgeting

    Shaking head – Neg.

    Moving away from speaker

    Neg. facial expression

    Behaviors that say, “I’ll Listen”


    Interpreting5
    Interpreting meaning model

    • Verbal and nonverbal dimensions interrelate allowing individuals to become more empathetic listeners to increase their social sensitivity, self-awareness, and self-monitoring skill in gathering information on people’s attitudes, feelings and ideas, this is interpretation.


    How are you at reading nonverbal cues and listening to1
    How are you at reading nonverbal cues and listening to: meaning model

    • Parents

    • Siblings

    • Friends

    • Significant Other

    • Children

    • Other


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