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Understanding Global Cultures. A “Four-Stage Model” of Cross-Cultural Understanding. A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding. four-cell typology of process / goal orientation more specificity

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Understanding global cultures

UnderstandingGlobal Cultures

A “Four-Stage Model” of

Cross-Cultural Understanding


A four stage model of cross cultural understanding
A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding

  • four-cell typology of process / goal orientation

  • more specificity

  • inclusion of other “etic” or culture-general dimensions along which specific cultures have been shown to vary

  • cultural metaphors are employed for understanding a culture


A four stage model of cross cultural understanding1
A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding

  • four-cell typology of process / goal orientation


Four stage model
Four-Stage Model”

one variable of the is the degree to which process such as effective communication and getting to know one another in depth should precede discussion of specific goals


Four stage model1
Four-Stage Model”

another variable is the degree to which a culture fosters and encourages open emotional expression



Cultural metaphors
Cultural Metaphors

  • four generic types of cultures

    • horizontal collectivism

      • community sharing

  • vertical collectivism

    • hierarchical (authority) ranking

  • horizontal individualism

    • equality matching

  • vertical individualism

    • market pricing




  • Four generic types of cultures
    Four Generic Types of Cultures

    • Horizontal Collectivism / Community Sharing

      • reflects community sharing in which members of the in-group share all of their goods

        • as in a small village

        • even to the extent that there is no such phenomenon as theft


    Four generic types of cultures1
    Four Generic Types of Cultures

    • Horizontal Collectivism / Community Sharing

      • not much differentiation between individuals

      • ethics are based on group membership

        • in-group or out-group

        • members of out-groups are viewed as nonpersons



    Four generic types of cultures2
    Four Generic Types of Cultures

    • Vertical Collectivism / Authority Ranking Cultures

      • Ch. 02 The Thai Kingdom

      • Ch. 03 The Japanese Garden

      • Ch. 04 India: The Dance of Shiva

      • Ch. 05 Bedouin Jewelry and Saudi Arabia

      • Ch. 06 The Turkish Coffeehouse

      • Ch. 07 The Brazilian Samba

      • Ch. 08 The Polish Village Church

      • Ch. 09 Kimchi and Korea


    Four generic types of cultures3
    Four Generic Types of Cultures

    • Vertical Collectivism / Authority Ranking Cultures

      • authority ranking

      • found in large parts of Asia, Africa, and Latin America

      • involves a psychological relationship between the leader or leaders and all others in the culture


    Four generic types of cultures4
    Four Generic Types of Cultures

    • Vertical Collectivism / Authority Ranking Cultures

      • frequently, such a culture is symbolized not by the handshake, which reflects equality, but by different forms of bowing


    Four generic types of cultures5
    Four Generic Types of Cultures

    • Vertical Collectivism / Authority Ranking Cultures

      • there is a dynamic, two-way relationship between subordinates and leaders in authority ranking cultures

        • although the leaders receive more rewards, they are responsible for safeguarding the livelihoods of subordinates



    Four generic types of cultures6
    Four Generic Types of Cultures

    • Horizontal Individualism / Equality Matching Cultures

      • Ch. 10 The German Symphony

      • Ch. 11 The Swedish Stuga

      • Ch. 12 Irish Conversations


    Four generic types of cultures7
    Four Generic Types of Cultures

    • Horizontal Individualism / Equality Matching Cultures

      • equality matching

      • dominant in Scandinavian nations

        • Sweden

        • Norway

      • all individuals are considered equal, even when some are taxed heavily


    Four generic types of cultures8
    Four Generic Types of Cultures

    • Horizontal Individualism / Equality Matching Cultures

      • it is expected that those who cannot make individual contributions to the common good will do so at a later time if possible



    Four generic types of cultures9
    Four Generic Types of Cultures

    • Vertical Individualism / Market Pricing Cultures

      • Ch. 13 American Football

      • Ch. 14 The Traditional British House


    Four generic types of cultures10
    Four Generic Types of Cultures

    • Vertical Individualism / Market Pricing Cultures

      • market pricing

      • found in the United States and other market-dominated nations


    Four generic types of cultures11
    Four Generic Types of Cultures

    • Vertical Individualism / Market Pricing Cultures

      • although individualism is emphasized, so, too, is the free market

        • inequality resulting from the operation of the free market is deemed acceptable


    Four generic types of cultures12
    Four Generic Types of Cultures

    • Vertical Individualism / Market Pricing Cultures

      • there is equality of opportunity and a level playing field

        • but not equality of outcomes


    Four generic types of cultures13
    Four Generic Types of Cultures

    • Vertical Individualism / Market Pricing Cultures

      • ethics revolves around the operation of a free market


    Cultural metaphors1
    Cultural Metaphors

    • four generic types of cultures, plus

      • “Cleft National Cultures”

        • one in which the subcultures of the diverse ethnic groups are difficult to integrate . . .

      • “Torn National Cultures”

        • one, such as Russia, that has been torn from its roots at least once


    Cultural metaphors2
    Cultural Metaphors

    “Cleft National Cultures”

    • Ch. 15 The Malaysian Balik Kampung

    • Ch. 16 The Nigerian Marketplace

    • Ch. 17 The Israeli Kibbutzim and Moshavim

    • Ch. 18 The Italian Opera

    • Ch. 19 Belgian Lace


    Cultural metaphors3
    Cultural Metaphors

    “Torn National Cultures”

    • Ch. 20 The Mexican Fiesta

    • Ch. 21 The Russian Ballet


    Cultural metaphors4
    Cultural Metaphors

    “Same Metaphor,

    Different Meanings”

    • Ch. 22 The Spanish Bullfight

    • Ch. 23 The Portuguese Bullfight


    Cultural metaphors5
    Cultural Metaphors

    “Beyond National Boarders”

    • Ch. 24 The Chinese Family Altar


    Scaling

    • nominal

    • ordinal

    • interval

    • ratio

      After H. Russell Bernard, Research Methods in Anthropology, 1994



    Scaling
    Scaling

    • Horizontal Collectivism / Community Sharing

      • nominal scaling

      • only names are given to entities

        • in-group vs. out-group


    Scaling1
    Scaling

    nominal scaling

    • naming something


    Scaling2
    Scaling

    nominal scaling

    • a nominal variable is an item on a list of things

      • the variables are mutually exclusive

      • but they do not exhaust the possibilities


    Scaling3
    Scaling

    religion

    • Hindu

    • Moslem

    • Buddhist

    • Christian

    • Druid

    • “Other”



    Scaling4
    Scaling

    • Vertical Collectivism / Authority Ranking Cultures

      • ordinal scaling

      • individual A may be more important than individual B, and individual C may be more important than individual B, but there is no common unit of measurement


    Scaling5
    Scaling

    ordinal scaling

    • putting things in order


    Scaling6
    Scaling

    ordinal scaling

    • ordinal variables are exhaustive and mutually exclusive

    • and their values can be rank ordered


    Scaling7
    Scaling

    ordinal scaling

    • high

    • medium

    • low


    Scaling8
    Scaling

    socioeconomic class (SES)

    • upper class

    • middle class

    • lower class


    Scaling9
    Scaling

    types of political organization

    • “peasant society”

    • “primitive state”

    • “chiefdom”

    • “tribe”

    • “band”


    Scaling10
    Scaling

    ordinal scaling

    • in general, concepts are measured at the ordinal level


    Scaling11
    Scaling

    level of acculturation

    • very acculturated

    • somewhat acculturated

    • unacculturated


    Scaling12
    Scaling

    ordinal scaling

    • what ordinal variables do not tell us is how much more

    • the most important characteristic of ordinal measure is that there is no way to tell how far apart the attributes are from one another



    Scaling13
    Scaling

    • Horizontal Individualism / Equality Matching Cultures

      • interval scale

      • culture does have a common unit of measurement, but it does not make value judgments about individual worth

        • there are too many dimensions along which individuals can be measures


    Scaling14
    Scaling

    interval scaling

    • putting items at fixed intervals


    Scaling15
    Scaling

    interval scaling

    • interval variables are exhaustive and mutually exclusive

    • and their values can be rank ordered


    Scaling16
    Scaling

    interval scaling

    • and the distances between the attributes are meaningful


    Scaling17
    Scaling

    interval scaling

    • 30° Fahrenheit

    • 40° Fahrenheit

    • 70° Fahrenheit

    • 80° Fahrenheit


    Scaling18
    Scaling

    interval scaling

    • 40° F - 30° F = 10° F

    • 80° F - 70° F = 10° F


    Scaling19
    Scaling

    interval scaling

    • but there is no “zero point”

    • i.e., 80° Fahrenheit is not twice as warm as 40° Fahrenheit


    Scaling20
    Scaling

    interval scaling

    • concrete, observable things are often measured at the interval level

      • but not always



    Scaling21
    Scaling

    • Vertical Individualism / Market Pricing Cultures

      • scale is ratio

      • there is a common unit of measurement

      • and a true zero point

        • allows members of the culture to transform every other dimension and compare them monetarily


    Scaling22
    Scaling

    ratio scaling

    • interval variables that have a zero point

    • there are few interval variables that are not also ratio variables


    Scaling23
    Scaling

    ratio scaling

    • a 40-year-old is 10 years older than a 30-year-old

    • a 40-year-old is twice as old as a 20-year-old


    Scaling24
    Scaling

    ratio scaling

    • it is common practice in the social sciences to refer to ratio variables as interval variables


    Scaling25
    Scaling

    ratio scaling

    • years of education

    • income in dollars, Euros . . .

    • years spent migrating

    • population size

    • # doctors / 100,000

    • # violent crimes / 100,000



    A four stage model of cross cultural understanding2
    A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding

    • four-cell typology of process / goal orientation

    • more specificity

    • inclusion of other “etic” or culture-general dimensions along which specific cultures have been shown to vary

    • cultural metaphors are employed for understanding a culture


    Emics etics
    Emics / Etics

    emics

    • from “phonemics”

    • viewing a culture from the inside

      etics

    • from “phonetics”

    • viewing a culture from the outside


    Other etic or culture general dimensions
    other “etic” or culture-general dimensions

    • achievement motivation

    • uncertainty avoidance

    • time horizon

    • femininity or assertiveness

    • tightness or looseness of rules

    • collectivistic / individualistic

    • etc.


    Culture Counts

    and it counts quit a bit

    but when does culture matter?


    When culture does and does not matter
    When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter

    • frequently occupational similarities neutralize culture

      • e.g., two doctors working on a problem


    When culture does and does not matter1
    When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter

    • similarity of class can diminish the importance of culture

      • e.g., middle class use of positive reinforcement in raising children


    When culture does and does not matter2
    When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter

    • sometimes powerful groups will exclude others from opportunities and then stereotype them negatively, thus consigning them to permanent inferior status

      • e.g., English / Irish in Ireland

      • e.g., Apartheid in South Africa

      • e.g., Rom (Gypsies) in many countries


    When culture does and does not matter3
    When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter

    • sometimes the nature of the problem minimizes the importance of cultural differences

      • e.g., companies from two countries working on problem supported by top managements


    When culture does and does not matter4
    When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter

    • when trust is present, culture decreases in importance


    When culture does and does not matter5
    When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter

    • culture is particularly important in cross-cultural negotiations


    When culture does and does not matter6
    When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter

    • culture is also important when individuals move to another nation or culture for an extended period of time


    When culture does and does not matter7
    When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter

    • to what extent do technological changes such as the Internet influence culture?

      • internet crime

      • more differentiation than integration

      • any indirect form of communication, such as e-mail, presents special difficulties and opportunities


    Cultural metaphors6
    Cultural Metaphors

    “Metaphors are not stereotypes.”

    Why?


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