understanding global cultures
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Understanding Global Cultures

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 76

Understanding Global Cultures - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 442 Views
  • Uploaded on

Understanding Global Cultures. A “Four-Stage Model” of Cross-Cultural Understanding. A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding. four-cell typology of process / goal orientation more specificity

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Understanding Global Cultures' - MikeCarlo


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
understanding global cultures

UnderstandingGlobal Cultures

A “Four-Stage Model” of

Cross-Cultural Understanding

a four stage model of cross cultural understanding
A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding
  • four-cell typology of process / goal orientation
  • more specificity
  • inclusion of other “etic” or culture-general dimensions along which specific cultures have been shown to vary
  • cultural metaphors are employed for understanding a culture
a four stage model of cross cultural understanding1
A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding
  • four-cell typology of process / goal orientation
four stage model
“Four-Stage Model”

one variable of the is the degree to which process such as effective communication and getting to know one another in depth should precede discussion of specific goals

four stage model1
“Four-Stage Model”

another variable is the degree to which a culture fosters and encourages open emotional expression

cultural metaphors
Cultural Metaphors
  • four generic types of cultures
    • horizontal collectivism
        • community sharing
    • vertical collectivism
        • hierarchical (authority) ranking
    • horizontal individualism
        • equality matching
    • vertical individualism
        • market pricing
four generic types of cultures
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Horizontal Collectivism / Community Sharing
    • reflects community sharing in which members of the in-group share all of their goods
      • as in a small village
      • even to the extent that there is no such phenomenon as theft
four generic types of cultures1
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Horizontal Collectivism / Community Sharing
    • not much differentiation between individuals
    • ethics are based on group membership
      • in-group or out-group
      • members of out-groups are viewed as nonpersons
four generic types of cultures2
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Vertical Collectivism / Authority Ranking Cultures
    • Ch. 02 The Thai Kingdom
    • Ch. 03 The Japanese Garden
    • Ch. 04 India: The Dance of Shiva
    • Ch. 05 Bedouin Jewelry and Saudi Arabia
    • Ch. 06 The Turkish Coffeehouse
    • Ch. 07 The Brazilian Samba
    • Ch. 08 The Polish Village Church
    • Ch. 09 Kimchi and Korea
four generic types of cultures3
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Vertical Collectivism / Authority Ranking Cultures
    • authority ranking
    • found in large parts of Asia, Africa, and Latin America
    • involves a psychological relationship between the leader or leaders and all others in the culture
four generic types of cultures4
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Vertical Collectivism / Authority Ranking Cultures
    • frequently, such a culture is symbolized not by the handshake, which reflects equality, but by different forms of bowing
four generic types of cultures5
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Vertical Collectivism / Authority Ranking Cultures
    • there is a dynamic, two-way relationship between subordinates and leaders in authority ranking cultures
      • although the leaders receive more rewards, they are responsible for safeguarding the livelihoods of subordinates
four generic types of cultures6
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Horizontal Individualism / Equality Matching Cultures
    • Ch. 10 The German Symphony
    • Ch. 11 The Swedish Stuga
    • Ch. 12 Irish Conversations
four generic types of cultures7
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Horizontal Individualism / Equality Matching Cultures
    • equality matching
    • dominant in Scandinavian nations
      • Sweden
      • Norway
    • all individuals are considered equal, even when some are taxed heavily
four generic types of cultures8
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Horizontal Individualism / Equality Matching Cultures
    • it is expected that those who cannot make individual contributions to the common good will do so at a later time if possible
four generic types of cultures9
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Vertical Individualism / Market Pricing Cultures
    • Ch. 13 American Football
    • Ch. 14 The Traditional British House
four generic types of cultures10
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Vertical Individualism / Market Pricing Cultures
    • market pricing
    • found in the United States and other market-dominated nations
four generic types of cultures11
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Vertical Individualism / Market Pricing Cultures
    • although individualism is emphasized, so, too, is the free market
      • inequality resulting from the operation of the free market is deemed acceptable
four generic types of cultures12
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Vertical Individualism / Market Pricing Cultures
    • there is equality of opportunity and a level playing field
      • but not equality of outcomes
four generic types of cultures13
Four Generic Types of Cultures
  • Vertical Individualism / Market Pricing Cultures
    • ethics revolves around the operation of a free market
cultural metaphors1
Cultural Metaphors
  • four generic types of cultures, plus
    • “Cleft National Cultures”
      • one in which the subcultures of the diverse ethnic groups are difficult to integrate . . .
    • “Torn National Cultures”
      • one, such as Russia, that has been torn from its roots at least once
cultural metaphors2
Cultural Metaphors

“Cleft National Cultures”

  • Ch. 15 The Malaysian Balik Kampung
  • Ch. 16 The Nigerian Marketplace
  • Ch. 17 The Israeli Kibbutzim and Moshavim
  • Ch. 18 The Italian Opera
  • Ch. 19 Belgian Lace
cultural metaphors3
Cultural Metaphors

“Torn National Cultures”

  • Ch. 20 The Mexican Fiesta
  • Ch. 21 The Russian Ballet
cultural metaphors4
Cultural Metaphors

“Same Metaphor,

Different Meanings”

  • Ch. 22 The Spanish Bullfight
  • Ch. 23 The Portuguese Bullfight
cultural metaphors5
Cultural Metaphors

“Beyond National Boarders”

  • Ch. 24 The Chinese Family Altar
slide32
Scaling
  • nominal
  • ordinal
  • interval
  • ratio

After H. Russell Bernard, Research Methods in Anthropology, 1994

scaling
Scaling
  • Horizontal Collectivism / Community Sharing
    • nominal scaling
    • only names are given to entities
      • in-group vs. out-group
scaling1
Scaling

nominal scaling

  • naming something
scaling2
Scaling

nominal scaling

  • a nominal variable is an item on a list of things
    • the variables are mutually exclusive
    • but they do not exhaust the possibilities
scaling3
Scaling

religion

  • Hindu
  • Moslem
  • Buddhist
  • Christian
  • Druid
  • “Other”
scaling4
Scaling
  • Vertical Collectivism / Authority Ranking Cultures
    • ordinal scaling
    • individual A may be more important than individual B, and individual C may be more important than individual B, but there is no common unit of measurement
scaling5
Scaling

ordinal scaling

  • putting things in order
scaling6
Scaling

ordinal scaling

  • ordinal variables are exhaustive and mutually exclusive
  • and their values can be rank ordered
scaling7
Scaling

ordinal scaling

  • high
  • medium
  • low
scaling8
Scaling

socioeconomic class (SES)

  • upper class
  • middle class
  • lower class
scaling9
Scaling

types of political organization

  • “peasant society”
  • “primitive state”
  • “chiefdom”
  • “tribe”
  • “band”
scaling10
Scaling

ordinal scaling

  • in general, concepts are measured at the ordinal level
scaling11
Scaling

level of acculturation

  • very acculturated
  • somewhat acculturated
  • unacculturated
scaling12
Scaling

ordinal scaling

  • what ordinal variables do not tell us is how much more
  • the most important characteristic of ordinal measure is that there is no way to tell how far apart the attributes are from one another
scaling13
Scaling
  • Horizontal Individualism / Equality Matching Cultures
    • interval scale
    • culture does have a common unit of measurement, but it does not make value judgments about individual worth
      • there are too many dimensions along which individuals can be measures
scaling14
Scaling

interval scaling

  • putting items at fixed intervals
scaling15
Scaling

interval scaling

  • interval variables are exhaustive and mutually exclusive
  • and their values can be rank ordered
scaling16
Scaling

interval scaling

  • and the distances between the attributes are meaningful
scaling17
Scaling

interval scaling

  • 30° Fahrenheit
  • 40° Fahrenheit
  • 70° Fahrenheit
  • 80° Fahrenheit
scaling18
Scaling

interval scaling

  • 40° F - 30° F = 10° F
  • 80° F - 70° F = 10° F
scaling19
Scaling

interval scaling

  • but there is no “zero point”
  • i.e., 80° Fahrenheit is not twice as warm as 40° Fahrenheit
scaling20
Scaling

interval scaling

  • concrete, observable things are often measured at the interval level
    • but not always
scaling21
Scaling
  • Vertical Individualism / Market Pricing Cultures
    • scale is ratio
    • there is a common unit of measurement
    • and a true zero point
      • allows members of the culture to transform every other dimension and compare them monetarily
scaling22
Scaling

ratio scaling

  • interval variables that have a zero point
  • there are few interval variables that are not also ratio variables
scaling23
Scaling

ratio scaling

  • a 40-year-old is 10 years older than a 30-year-old
  • a 40-year-old is twice as old as a 20-year-old
scaling24
Scaling

ratio scaling

  • it is common practice in the social sciences to refer to ratio variables as interval variables
scaling25
Scaling

ratio scaling

  • years of education
  • income in dollars, Euros . . .
  • years spent migrating
  • population size
  • # doctors / 100,000
  • # violent crimes / 100,000
a four stage model of cross cultural understanding2
A Four-Stage Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding
  • four-cell typology of process / goal orientation
  • more specificity
  • inclusion of other “etic” or culture-general dimensions along which specific cultures have been shown to vary
  • cultural metaphors are employed for understanding a culture
emics etics
Emics / Etics

emics

  • from “phonemics”
  • viewing a culture from the inside

etics

  • from “phonetics”
  • viewing a culture from the outside
other etic or culture general dimensions
other “etic” or culture-general dimensions
  • achievement motivation
  • uncertainty avoidance
  • time horizon
  • femininity or assertiveness
  • tightness or looseness of rules
  • collectivistic / individualistic
  • etc.
slide67
Culture Counts

and it counts quit a bit

but when does culture matter?

when culture does and does not matter
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter
  • frequently occupational similarities neutralize culture
    • e.g., two doctors working on a problem
when culture does and does not matter1
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter
  • similarity of class can diminish the importance of culture
    • e.g., middle class use of positive reinforcement in raising children
when culture does and does not matter2
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter
  • sometimes powerful groups will exclude others from opportunities and then stereotype them negatively, thus consigning them to permanent inferior status
    • e.g., English / Irish in Ireland
    • e.g., Apartheid in South Africa
    • e.g., Rom (Gypsies) in many countries
when culture does and does not matter3
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter
  • sometimes the nature of the problem minimizes the importance of cultural differences
    • e.g., companies from two countries working on problem supported by top managements
when culture does and does not matter4
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter
  • when trust is present, culture decreases in importance
when culture does and does not matter5
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter
  • culture is particularly important in cross-cultural negotiations
when culture does and does not matter6
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter
  • culture is also important when individuals move to another nation or culture for an extended period of time
when culture does and does not matter7
When Culture Does, and Does Not Matter
  • to what extent do technological changes such as the Internet influence culture?
    • internet crime
    • more differentiation than integration
    • any indirect form of communication, such as e-mail, presents special difficulties and opportunities
cultural metaphors6
Cultural Metaphors

“Metaphors are not stereotypes.”

Why?

ad