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The Introduction. C507 Scientific Writing Session 7. Before You Even Write. Decide on Authorship Know the manuscript requirements Assemble all your data. Authorship. What is a fair claim to authorship? Responsibility Content. Four Criteria for Authorship.

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The introduction

The Introduction


Scientific Writing

Session 7

Before you even write
Before You Even Write

  • Decide on Authorship

  • Know the manuscript requirements

  • Assemble all your data


  • What is a fair claim to authorship?

    • Responsibility

    • Content

Four criteria for authorship
Four Criteria for Authorship

  • 1. AN author should have generated at least a part of the intellectual content of the paper: initially conceived of the study it reports, if it is a research paper or case report; or developed the plan for the paper, if it is a review or editorial.

Four criteria for authorship1
Four Criteria for Authorship

  • 2. An author should have collected reported data (including clinical observations) and interpreted them for the paper’s message.

Four criteria for authorship2
Four Criteria for Authorship

  • 3. An author should have taken part in writing the paper or revising its intellectual contents.

Four criteria for authorship3
Four Criteria for Authorship

  • 4. An author should be able to defend publicly in the scientific community that intellectual content of the paper for he or she take responsibility.

Justification for authorship
Justification for Authorship

  • Basis: Genesis of the paper (research report

    • Legitimate: Development of a testable hypothesis

    • Not legitimate: Suggestion that legitimate author(s) work on the problem

Justification for authorship1
Justification for Authorship

  • Basis: Genesis of the paper (case report)

    • Legitimate: First notice of previously unobserved phenomenon

    • Not legitimate: Physician’s routine referral care, service

Justification for authorship2
Justification for Authorship

  • Genesis of the paper (review)

    • Legitimate: Critical interpretations of reviewed papers and assembled data

    • Not legitimate: Suggestion that the review be written

Justification for authorship3
Justification for Authorship

  • Basis: Research efforts

    • Legitimate: Development of study design

    • Not legitimate: Suggestion of use of standard study design

Justification for authorship4
Justification for Authorship

  • Basis: Research efforts

    • Legitimate: development of new method (laboratory, field, or statistical) or critical modification of previous method

    • Not legitimate: Observations and measurements by routine methods

    • Legitimate: Personal collection and analysis of data.

Justification for authorship5
Justification for Authorship

  • Basis: Clinical studies

    • Legitimate: New diagnostic and therapeutic efforts

    • Not legitimate: “Routine” diagnostic and therapeutic efforts that would have occurred even if the paper had not been written

Justification for authorship6
Justification for Authorship

  • Basis: Interpretation of findings

    • Legitimate: Explanatory insight into unexpected phenomena

    • Not legitimate: Routine explanations such as EKG or radiographic reports

Justification for authorship7
Justification for Authorship

  • Basis: Writing of the paper

    • Legitimate: Writing of the first draft or critically important revision of concept in a later draft

    • Not legitimate: Solely criticisms of drafts and suggestions for revision of presentation, not ideas

Justification for authorship8
Justification for Authorship

  • Basis: Responsibility for content

    • Legitimate: Ability to justify intellectually the conclusions of the paper, including defense of the evidence and counterevidence weighed in reaching the conclusions

    • Not legitimate: Solely attesting to accuracy of individual facts reported.

A challenge
A Challenge

  • One of the most difficult problems in authorship arises with research reports by large, multi-center, cooperative teams

A final comment on authorship
A Final Comment on Authorship

  • Early discussion on authorship has another practical value. When a decision has been reached, the to-be authors can then decide on how to divide the work of writing the paper.

Manuscript requirements
Manuscript Requirements

  • Read the darn Instructions to Authors!

Assembling evidence
Assembling Evidence

  • All papers support their conclusions with evidence:

    • Observational data

    • Case descriptions

    • Photographs

    • Citations of published papers

    • Etc.

Evidence for the research paper
Evidence for the Research paper

  • Papers to be cited

    • Papers read before and while drawing up the research proposal

    • Papers that came to your attention during the research

    • Papers found in a final search immediately before you decide to report the research in a paper

Evidence for the research paper1
Evidence for the Research paper

  • Descriptions of study designs and methods:

    • Papers to be cited for methods

    • Grant application or protocol approved and reviewed

Evidence for the research paper2
Evidence for the Research paper

  • Copies of signed informed consent forms

  • Table of data: analyzed data, with statistical assessments

  • Case summaries

  • Preliminary graphs, with statistical assessments if necessary

  • Illustrations: radiographs, EKGs, preliminary sketches for artwork

Evidence for the case report
Evidence for the Case Report

  • Clinic records and case summaries from those records

  • Tables of data: data illustrating clinical course; data from special studies

  • Preliminary graphs of same

  • Papers to cite

  • Photographs and permissions; radiographs, EKG, and similar records


  • Needed for:

    • Previously published items

    • Photographs

    • Letters and other communications

    • For acknowledgements

And now
And Now

  • You finally get to sit down and start on the Introduction

  • Of course, you already:

    • Chose the title

    • Know your authorship

    • Have the abstract ready

  • Now start writing