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STRESS……. Objectives: By the end of the session the students will be able to- Define Stress Recognise physiological signs of stress Theories of stress Measure stress Discuss research into causes of stress. What is stress?????.

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Stress l.jpg

STRESS……

Objectives:By the end of the session the students will be able to-

Define Stress

Recognise physiological signs of stress

Theories of stress

Measure stress

Discuss research into causes of stress


What is stress l.jpg
What is stress?????

  • “A pattern of negative physiological states & psychological responses occurring in situations where people perceive threats to their well being which they may be unable to meet.”

  • R.Lazurus & S. Folkman (1984)


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What is stress cont….

  • There needs to event called a stressor e.g. exam,unemployment, long term illness.

  • When we feel uncomfortable there is a set of changes which are measured for signs of stress.


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Difficulties for using these measures…..

  • Being measured – will have increased levels of arousal.

  • Difficult to use in less formal setting – wired up to machine in house.


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Physiological signs of stress. (GAS)

  • Seyle (1976) Animals react similarly to humans in variety of situations.

  • He developed theory called General Adaptation Syndrome

  • Defined as a non-specific physiological response to a variety of stressful stimulus.


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General Adaptation syndromecont….

  • Stage 1: Alarm Reaction

  • Perceived threat, drop in BP, muscle tension, the body prepares for confrontation.

  • Stage 2: Resistance

  • Chemical production

  • Body keeps up defences, but becomes vulnerable.

  • Stage 3 : Exhaustion

  • Body begins to manifest signs of prolonged hormone secretion, in need of recovery e.g low blood sugar, kidney damage, low hormone levels.


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Evaluation of GAS model

  • Allows good insight into causes of stress related illness.

  • But still does not answer the question of why we perceive some events as threatening.

  • Overall what is needed is the person to be involved in the equation.


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Physiological ways of measuring stress…….

  • Blood pressure (BP)

  • Inflated arm band

  • Breathing

  • Tubes around chest

  • Heart rate (HR)

  • ECG-electrocardiogram.

  • Sweating

  • Hormone levels

  • Blood/urine


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Psychological Measures Of stress.

  • Surveys/Questionnaires.

  • Both have strengths & weaknesses I.e Demand Characteristics.

  • Interviews.

  • Open-ended Vs closed questions.

  • Rich detail

  • Cannot generalise.

  • Behavioural Techniques.

  • Time on task

  • Obedience test- ????????


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Causes Of Stress????

  • Heat

  • Discomfort in heat, add to tense situation.

  • Noise.

  • Unwanted sound, especially if unpredictable.

  • Crowding

  • Trains, travel, pubs.

  • Stressful Life Events

  • What are your most stressful memories?????


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Psychological Signs Of Stress.

  • Cognitive

  • Confusion/Distraction

  • Emotions

  • Low Levels of Mental Activity

  • Behavioural

  • Physical difficulties

  • Aggression

  • Slow movements


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Why Is stress problematic To Research

  • Artificial setting.

  • Maybe physiologically aroused but not stressed.

  • Ethical concerns. ( Milgram what was wrong with this study.)


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