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http://paleo.cortland.edu/tutorial/Timescale/Timescale3.GIF. Figure F7. Cenozoic events in climate, tectonics, and biota vs. d 18 O and d 13 C in benthic foraminiferal calcite (after Zachos et al., 2001). VPDB = Vienna Peedee belemnite

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Stratigraphyi

http://paleo.cortland.edu/tutorial/Timescale/Timescale3.GIF


Stratigraphyi

Figure F7. Cenozoic events in climate, tectonics, and biota vs. d18O and d13C in benthic foraminiferal

calcite (after Zachos et al., 2001). VPDB = Vienna Peedee belemnite

http://odp.pangaea.de/publications/207_IR/chap_01/c1_f7.htm#60367


Stratigraphyi

http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~leeman/GeoTimeSpiral.gif


Stratigraphyi

“Outcrop” or cross section view

  • Types of rocks based on geometry? (sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic)

  • Order of events?

http://serc.carleton.edu/quantskills/methods/quantlit/DeepTime.html


Stratigraphyi

Guiding principles geologist use when examining a rock outcrop

to determine order of events

  • principle of uniformitarianism:

    • physical processes acting today also acted in the past at comparable rates

    • -- the present is the key to the past;

  • principle of superposition:

    • younger sedimentary rocks overlie older rocks because a layer of sediment cannot

    • accumulate unless there is already a substrate on which it can collect

  • principle of original horizontality:

    • sedimentary rocks are deposited relatively horizontally because they settle out of fluid in

    • a gravitational field -- folds and tilted beds indicate deformation that postdates deposition;

  • principle of original continuity:

    • sedimentary rock units accumulate in continuous sheets, a layer exposed on one side of

    • a canyon likely spanned the canyon at one time;

http://serc.carleton.edu/quantskills/methods/quantlit/DeepTime.html


Stratigraphyi

Guiding principles geologist use when examining a rock outcrop

to determine order of events

  • principle of cross-cutting relationships:

    • a feature that cuts across another is younger than that which it cuts;

  • principle of inclusions:

    • igneous and sedimentary rocks that contain inclusions of other rocks must be younger

    • than the rocks they include

  • principle of baked contacts:

    • an igneous intrusion "bakes" the rock surrounding it.

http://serc.carleton.edu/quantskills/methods/quantlit/DeepTime.html


Stratigraphyi

In this image,

A is younger than C (superposition),

C is younger than I (inclusions, cross cutting),

I is younger than D, E and B (cross-cutting),

D (the fault) is younger than E and B (cross-cutting),

H, F, K and J have been tilted or folded (original horizontality),

G is younger than B, H, F, K and J (baked contacts).

In order from youngest to oldest, the sequence is as follows:

A, C, I, D (faulting), E, G, B, tilting, H, F, K. J.

http://serc.carleton.edu/quantskills/methods/quantlit/DeepTime.html


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