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Speech Perception: PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Speech Perception:. Theoretical approaches. Scope of the problem. Speech perception involves the mapping of speech acoustic signals onto linguistic messages (e.g., phonemes, distinctive features, syllables, words, phrases…). Why is the problem theoretically hard to solve?.

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Speech perception l.jpg

Speech Perception:

Theoretical approaches


Scope of the problem l.jpg

Scope of the problem

  • Speech perception involves the mapping of speech acoustic signals onto linguistic messages (e.g., phonemes, distinctive features, syllables, words, phrases…)


Why is the problem theoretically hard to solve l.jpg

Why is the problem theoretically hard to solve?

  • Acoustic variability due to context, talker, dialect, rate, prosodic, and other differences.

  • Segmentation problems


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Three theoretical approaches:

  • Motor theory

  • Direct realism

  • General approach


Motor theory of speech perception liberman mattingly 1985 l.jpg

Motor theory of speech perception(Liberman & Mattingly, 1985)

  • Listeners perceive gestures (more specifically, intended gestures, or neuromotor commands).

  • Speech is perceived in humans by means of a specialized speech module.


How the speech module works l.jpg

How the speech module works:

…“the candidate signal descriptions are computed by an analogue of the production process—an internal, innately specified vocal-tract synthesizer…—that incorporates complete information about the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the vocal tract and also about the articulatory and acoustic consequences of linguistically significant gestures” (Liberman & Mattingly, 1985, p. 26).


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Spectrograms of /di/ and /du/


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Direct realist theory of speech perception (C. Fowler)

  • Derived from James J. Gibson’s perceptual theory.

  • Objects of speech perception are actual gestures.

  • No special mechanisms are required.


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How direct realism works:

  • “Perceptual systems have a universal function. They constitute the sole means by which animals can know their niches. Moreover, they appear to serve this function in one way: They use structure in the media that has been lawfully caused by events in the environment as information for the events. Even though it is the structure in media (light for vision, skin for touch, air for hearing) that sense organs transduce, it is not the structure in those media that animals perceive. Rather, essentially for their survival, they perceive the components of their niche that caused the structure.” (Fowler, 1996, p. 1732)


General approach to speech perception diehl lotto holt 2004 l.jpg

General approach to speech perception (Diehl, Lotto, & Holt, 2004)

  • Objects of speech perception are (primarily) acoustic/auditory events.

  • Speech perception relies on general mechanisms of audition and perceptual learning.


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Variation in VOT


Spectrograms of english ba and pa l.jpg

Spectrograms of English /ba/ and /pa/


Vot frequency histograms of voicing categories across six languages lisker abramson 1964 l.jpg

VOT frequency histograms of voicing categories across six languages (Lisker & Abramson, 1964)


English identification functions for vot stimuli superimposed on vot frequency histograms l.jpg

English identification functions for VOT stimuli superimposed on VOT frequency histograms


English discrimination functions for vot stimuli l.jpg

English discrimination functions for VOT stimuli


Thai identification functions for vot stimuli superimposed on thai vot frequency histograms l.jpg

Thai identification functions for VOT stimuli superimposed on Thai VOT frequency histograms


Thai discrimination functions for vot stimuli l.jpg

Thai discrimination functions for VOT stimuli


Tone onset time tot a nonspeech analog of voice onset time vot pisoni 1977 holt lotto diehl 2004 l.jpg

-50 TOT

+50 TOT

0TOT

Frequency (Hz)

Time (ms)

50 ms

50 ms

Tone onset time (TOT): a nonspeech analog of Voice onset time (VOT) (Pisoni, 1977; Holt, Lotto, & Diehl, 2004)


Discrimination functions for tot stimuli holt lotto diehl 2004 l.jpg

Discrimination functions for TOT stimuli (Holt,Lotto,& Diehl, 2004)


Vot identification by chinchillas kuhl miller 1981 l.jpg

VOT “identification” by chinchillas(Kuhl & Miller, 1981)


Ga ka identification by typically developing children and dyslexic children with and without adhd l.jpg

/ga/-/ka/ identification by typically developing children and dyslexic children (with and without ADHD)


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Back to the three approaches to speech perception

  • Motor theory

  • Direct realism

  • General approach


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