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Smallmouth Bass ( Micropterus dolomieu) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Smallmouth Bass ( Micropterus dolomieu). a.k.a. Smallmouth; Smallie; bronzeback; brown bass; redeye; mountain trout.

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Smallmouth bass micropterus dolomieu l.jpg

Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu)

a.k.a. Smallmouth; Smallie; bronzeback; brown bass; redeye; mountain trout


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Identification: Bronze to dark olive dorsally; pale yellow to white ventrally; black mottling on back with vertical bars on side. Can reach a length of 69cm. Young can be identified by their tri-colored tail (yellow, black, white).

Distribution: Occurs throughout most of Iowa. Absent from SW 1/3 of the state, and most abundant NE portion of the state.

Fishbase Pictures

Iowa DNR


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Distinguishing from Similar Species:

Smallmouth bass – mouth doesn’t extend past eye; tooth patch on tongue; no mid-lateral stripe; has vertical bars on side; YOY have tri-colored tail.

Largemouth bass – mouth extends well past the eye; no tooth patch on tongue; broad black mid-lateral stripe; no vertical bars on side; found state-wide.

Spotted Bass – mouth doesn’t extend past eye; has tooth patch on tongue; black mid-lateral stripe; no vertical bars on side; YOY have tri-colored tail; in IA it is only found in Lake Macbride.

Fishbase Pictures

Google Images

Fishbase Pictures


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Habitat: Clear to slightly turbid streams and rivers, over gravel or boulder laden substrate; shallow rocky areas of lakes and reservoirs (reefs, windblown points, etc.).

Diet: Young of year (YOY) start on microcrustaceans, as growth proceeds diet mainly consists of aquatic insects, and finally graduates to macroinvertabrates and fishes. Insectivorous as larvae, and mainly piscivorous as adults.

Greg Gelwicks

Google Images

Google Images

Google Images

Fishbase Pictures


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Reproduction: Spawning occurs at temperatures between 16-21°C in waters ranging in depth from 1-6m depending upon clarity. Male fans a bed for female to lay eggs. Female may lay eggs in several different nests; number of eggs varies between 2,000-10,000. Male stays on bed to guard eggs and young.

Conservation Status: Common in IA. Gamefish status. Length and bag limits exist in IA to conserve sport fishery.


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Economic/Recreational Value: Important gamefish, and provides an additional sport fishery in IA.

Ecological Importance: Important predator; quite often the top carnivore in many of Iowa’s small interior streams.

Google Images

Google Images


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References

Becker, G.C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press. Madison, Wisconsin. p801-808.

Fishbase, A Global Information System on Fishes. Available at http://www.fishbase.se/home.htm Nov. 2004.

Gilbert, C.R. and J.D. Williams. 2002. National Audubon Society Field Guide to Fishes, Revised Ed., North America. Knopf, New York. p349-352.

Google Images. Available at http://www.google.com/imghp?hl=en&tab=wi&q= Oct. 2004.

Harlan, J.R., E.B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa Fish and Fishing. Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Des Moines, Iowa. P146-147.

Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Iowa DNR Fish and Fishing. available at http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/index.html Oct. 2004.

McClane, A.J. 1978. McClane’s Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes of North America. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, New York. P136-149.

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. Petersen Field Guides, Freshwater Fishes. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.


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Blackie Crappie

Pomoxis nigromaculatus

Family: Centrarchidae

Natural History of Fishes


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Black Crappie

  • Identification: Extremely compressed body , sharp dip over nose, 7-8 dorsal spines, large mouth extending under eye, gray-green on dorsal, silver sides with black mottling, 8-12 inches in length


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Black Crappie

  • Range: east to mid-west United States, with exception of the NE and southern Florida

  • Distribution: spread through the entire state of Iowa


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Black Crappie

  • Diet: small fish, aquatic insects and their larvae

  • Habitat: lakes, ponds, backwaters; living among aquatic vegetation in clear waters.


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Black Crappie

  • Reproduction: spawn May-June; male constructs nest by fanning out sand in medium depth areas with lots of vegetation; female lays 5,000 to 30,000 eggs.

  • Economic importance: huge game fish, good to eat.

  • Not considered threatened or endangered


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Black Crappie


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References

Iowa Department of Natural Resources. 2004. http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/iafish/bc-card.html

Ohio Department of Natural Resources. 2004. http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/Wildlife/Fishing

Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr. 1991. pp. 259. Freshwater Fishes of North America North of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.


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White Crappie(Pomoxis annularis)ByCurt Kemmerer

http://www.landbigfish.com/fish/fish.cfm?ID=13


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Identification

  • Deep, laterally compressed body; “hump-backed”

  • Sharp dip over eye

  • Dark vertical bands or mottling over silver body

  • Six dorsal spines, beginning at midpoint of body

  • Average 10-12 inches, seldom exceed two pounds

http://www.landbigfish.com/fish/fish.cfm?ID=13


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Similar Species

White Crappie (Pomoxis annularis) Black Crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus)


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Distribution

  • Very common, native species

  • Found statewide in lakes and larger rivers


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Found in creeks, rivers, ponds, and lakes

Found around submerged objects

May be found at varying depths up to 15 feet

Zooplankton (1st year)

Insects

Small fish

Crustaceans

Habitat Diet

http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/wildlife/fishing/aquanotes-fishid/wcrappie.htm


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Reproduction

  • Reaches maturity at two to three years

  • Spawning occurs in Spring (April-June) at approximately 560 F water temp.

  • Male builds nest in substrate of shallow water

  • Female lays up to 20,000 eggs in nest

  • Male guards eggs; hatch in three to seven days

  • Species average life-span of seven to eight years


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Conservation Status

  • Abundant in Iowa

  • No current threats to existence

    Economic/Recreational Importance

  • Very popular sport fish

  • Popular food fish (very tasty!!)

    Ecological Importance

  • Preys upon small fish and invertebrates

  • Prey to larger fish

  • Can tolerate turbid waters; not an important indicator or “key” ecological species


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References

  • Iowa Department of Natural Resources. IowaDNR Fish and Fishing. Available at http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/iafish/whc-card.html.

  • White Crappie Fish Identification. Available at http://www.landbigfish.com/fish/fish.cfm?ID=13.

  • Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Life History Notes: White Crappie. Available at http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/wildlife/fishing/aquanotes-fishid/wcrappie.htm.


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Rock Bass (Ambloplites rupestris) by: Kristin Burdorf


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Ambloplites rupestris

  • Characteristics

    • Olive colored with brassy reflections and dark molting along the sides

    • It has a whitish belly and breast

    • There are 6 spines in the anal fin and 12 in the dorsal

    • Seldom exceeds 10 inches

http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/iafish/nrb-card.html


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Ambloplites rupestris

  • Distribution

    • Generally found in the interior streams of Northeast Iowa

    • Is rarely found in the upper Des Moines and Mississippi rivers and large natural lakes

  • Habitat

    • Vegetated and brushy stream margins or rocky and vegetated margins of lakes

    • Most common in clear, silt-free rocky streams

http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/iafish/rockbass.html


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Ambloplites rupestris

  • Diet

    • Aquatic insects, minnows, and other small fish

  • Reproduction

    • Nest building begins by the male when water temperature reaches 65-75 F, usually between May and June

    • Female deposits ~5000 eggs in the nest

    • After hatching, young are found in quiet water areas protected from waves and strong currents


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Ambloplites rupestris

  • Conservation Status

    • Common and native to Iowa

  • Economic and Recreational Importance

    • Important in recreational fishing

  • Ecological Importance

    • Provides a stable prey base for larger fish

    • Helps to keep its food base in ecological check


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Ambloplites rupestris

  • References

    • Eddy, S. and J.C. Underhill. 1978. How to Know the Freshwater Fishes. 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill, Boston.

    • Iowa Department of Natural Resources. 1994. IowaDNR Fish and Fishing. http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/iafish/iafish.html. August 2004.

    • Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. Freshwater Fishes of North America North of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.


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Warmouth Bass Lepomisgulosus

Identification:

-Warmouth have a thick, oblong body.

Large mouth with the upper jaw extending to or beyond the middle of the eye.

dark olive-brown color, mottled with dark brown blotches over the body.

dark colored stripes extending from the eye to the opercle

Warmouth have only three anal fin spines (rock bass have six).

Florida Fisheries


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Warmouth Bass

  • Distribution:

    • Warmouth are found from the Atlantic to Texas, excluding the Canadian shield and the Appalachians.

  • Habitat:

    • They prefer weedy lakes, sluggish streams, oxbows, marshes and ponds.

Iowa DNR

Ohio DNR


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Warmouth Bass

  • Diet:

    • Crayfish, shrimp, insects and small fishes

  • Reproduction:

    • Warmouths are solitary nesters

    • Nests are found over a wide range of water depths. adjacent to submerged objects.

    • They spawn between April and August.

    • Females may produce 3,000 to 23,000 eggs.


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Warmouth Bass

  • Conservation status:

    • Not in any danger, open all year

  • Recreational Value:

    • The warmouth is one of the more easily caught sunfish. They strike hard, frequently breaking the surface of the water.

  • Ecological Importance:

    • Widely stocked


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Warmouth Bass

  • Other:

    • Common names: warmouth sunfish, goggle eye

    • Most of its feeding is done in the morning, as it seems to sleep at night.

The Virtual Aquarium


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References

  • Iowa DNR http://www.iowadnr.com

  • Fish and Fishing Maynard Reece, Meredith press, NY 1963

  • Ohio DNR http://www.dnr.state.oh.us


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Bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus)

Other names - sunperch, blue sunfish, copperbelly, copperhead, bream, coppernose bream, redbreasted sunfish, yellowbelly, bluemouth sunfish, baldface, plumb granny, pumpkinseed, pond perch, roach


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Bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus)

  • Identification

  • Deep, slab-sided with small mouth

  • Dark, olive colored back and sides, yellow to reddish underneath

  • Usually has dark vertical bars on sides and blueish gill cover and chin

  • No radiating lines from eye like Warmouth

  • Black, flexible tip at rear of gill cover, no red spot on it like Redear sunfish

  • Breast usually yellow to reddish

  • Upper jaw does not reach as far back as eye

  • 10 spines in un-notched dorsal fin.

Iowa DNR


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Bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus)

  • Distribution

  • Most abundant of all sunfish in IA

  • Found in virtually all waters

  • Most abundant in ponds and lakes

  • Not commonly found in western streams

  • Found in most interior rivers, very abundant in backwaters of the Mississippi.

Iowa DNR


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Bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus)

  • Diet

  • Zooplankton when young

  • Aquatic insects as adults

  • Will also supplement algae and other aquatic life in the scarcity of insects

  • Argulus, or Fish Lice have been found in stomach contents indicating that bluegill may perform a cleaning function on heavily parasitized fish

  • Reproduction

  • Late May to early August, esp. around the first of June

  • Water temp usually 21 – 27 degrees C

  • Males build saucer-shaped nests in 30 – 130cm of water, guard them heavily

  • Nest in colonies: up to 50 nests in 25 m radius

  • Females lay eggs in several nests

  • Finer substrates yield more fry: average 64,000 in fine sand and gravel

  • Usually reproduce in their second year


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Bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus)

  • Conservation Status:

  • Very abundant, not threatened in this state

  • Economic/recreational value:

  • Popular panfish, easy to catch, hard fighters, good eating

  • Ecological Importance:

  • Very important forage for larger fish.

  • High reproduction rates allow them to take over ponds, stunting growth


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Bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus)

  • Other Info:

  • Usually average around 20cm (8”)

  • Can reach 30 cm and weigh up to 1 kg.

  • Iowa record is 32.7cm (12-7/8 in.) and 1.42 kg (3 lb, 2 oz.)

  • Size varies greatly with population density

  • World Record: 2.01kg (4 lbs, 7 oz.) AL

LandBigFish.com

IL DNR


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References: Lepomis machrochirus

Illinois Department of Natural Resources. Illinois Fishes. Available at: http://dnr.state.il.us/lands/education/kids/KIDSCONS/Fall1999/ILfish.htm. November 2004.

Iowa Department of Natural Resources. IowaDNR Fish and Fishing: Bluegill. Available at: http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/iafish/blg-card.html. November 2004.

LandBigFish.com. 2004. Bluegill. Available at: http://www.landbigfish.com/fish/fish.cfm?ID=14. November 2004.

Mayhew, J. 1987. Iowa Fish and Fishing. Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines Iowa. Available at: http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/iafish/bluegill.html. November 2004.

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. Freshwater Fishes of North America North of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.


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Identification:

body green-shaded with a broad, continuous dark stripe along each side; belly white to yellowish; dorsal fin almost completely separated between spiny and soft portion and lower jaw extends past the gold-colored eye; commonly 12-16 inches; state record 10lb. 12oz.

Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides)Chris Steffen

Iowa DNR

Distribution:

statewide; nearly Global

Habitat:

lakes, ponds, quiet rivers; usually found around structure

Pennsylvania FBC


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Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides)

Diet:

insects, fish, crayfish, frogs; occasionally ducks, snakes, mice

Reproduction:

the male creates a nest; female lays 2,000-43,000 eggs; male protects nest and young for several days after hatching

Auburn FIsheries

Conservation Status:

very common

USDA


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Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides)

Economic/Recreational value:

one of the most popular game fish in Iowa and the US; generates millions through tackle sales, fishing trips, tournaments

Abtlures.com

Ecological Importance:

top piscivore in most Iowa ponds and lakes

Ohio History Central

ESPN


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References: Micropterus salmoides

Eddy, S. and J.C. Underhill. 1978. How to Know the Freshwater Fishes. 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill, Boston. 215 pp.

Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Fishes of Iowa. Available at http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/iafish/lmb-card.html. November 2004.

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. Freshwater Fishes of North America North of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. 432 pp.

Pflieger, W. L. 1997. The Fishes of Missouri, Revised Edition. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City Missouri.

Texas Parks and Wildlife. Texas Freshwater Fishing. Available at http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/fish/infish/species/lmb/lmb.htm

Ohio History Central. Fish. Largemouth Bass. Available at

http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/ohc/nature/animals

/fish/nlrgmouthbass.shtml


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Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus)

By Kelly Andersen

Identification: Large mouth, body laterally compressed, short, rounded pectoral fins, yellow to white margin on the ear flap, 10 spines in dorsal fin.

Color: Blue-green back and sides, white to yellow belly, black spot on posterior base of dorsal and anal fin, yellow-orange margins on dorsal, caudal, and anal fin, emerald and yellow streaks on head.

(Green Sunfish) Virginia Fish and Wildlife (Bluegill)


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Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus)

Distribution: Native to the Central and Eastern U.S., but have been introduced over much of the U.S.

Most wide-ranging sunfish in Iowa

Iowa DNR


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Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus)

Habitat: Quiet and backwaters of streams, lakes and ponds.

Diet: YOY- zooplankton, aquatic insects Adults - young fish or minnows, insects, crayfish

Iowa DNR


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Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus)

Reproduction: Sexually mature at about 2 years, males build nest when water reaches 70 degrees F, usually in June. Nest in colonies near shore, prefer sand or gravel bottom, if limited space nests will be very close together, females lay 2,000-10,000 eggs per year, males stay with the nest until fry are free swimming (usually 6-7 days)

Conservation: N/A considered common to abundant in their habitat.

www.thejump.net/id/green-sunfish.htm


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Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus)

Economic/recreational: sport fish, easily caught on many types of baits, rarely exceed 6-7 in. State Record: 2 lbs 1oz. from a farm pond.

Ecological important: important food source for other larger sport fish.

Other Common Names: Shade perch, black perch, slicks, ricefield slick, mud bass, rubber-tail, bluespotted sunfish, pond perch, green perch, sand bass, sunfish

floridafisheries.com


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References: Lepomis cyanellus

Eddy, S. and J.C. Underhill. 1978 How to Know the Freshwater Fishes. 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill, Boston.

Page, L. M. and B. M. Burr. 1991. Freshwater Fishes of North America North of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

Iowa Department of Natural Resources.1994.IowaDNR Fish and Fishing. Available at http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/iafish/sunfish.html October 2004


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Orange Spotted Sunfish(Lepomis humilis)by: Kristin Burdorf

http://campus.murraystate.edu/academic/faculty/howard.whiteman/field/fish/fishgallery/fishgallery.htm


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Lepomis humilis

  • Characteristics

    • Large mouth that extends to eye when closed

    • Spiny dorsal fin with 10 spines that is directly connected to the soft part of the fin

    • Long gill flaps with vivid orange spots on the sides

    • Sides are olive colored with fine golden or emerald dots

http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/iafish/osptcard.html


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Lepomis humilis

  • Distribution

    • Statewide

    • Commonly found in man-made lakes, natural lakes and interior streams

    • Occasionally in Mississippi and Missouri rivers

  • Habitat

    • Quite pools of creeks and small to large, often turbid, rivers

    • Usually near brush

http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/iafish/orangesp.html


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Lepomis humilis

  • Diet

    • Aquatic insects, crustaceans, and occasionally other small fish

  • Reproduction

    • Spawns in colonies with the male constructing the nest

    • Spawning last from May to August

    • Male stays with the nest for five days or until the eggs hatch


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Lepomis humilis

  • Conservation Status

    • Common and native to Iowa

  • Economical and Recreational Importance

    • Important in recreational fishing

  • Ecological Importance

    • Provides a stable prey base for larger fish

    • Helps keep its food base in ecological check


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Lepomis humilis

  • References

    • Eddy, S. and J.C. Underhill. 1978. How to Know the Freshwater Fishes. 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill, Boston.

    • Iowa Department of Natural Resources. 1994. IowaDNR Fish and Fishing. http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/iafish/iafish.html. August 2004.

    • Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. Freshwater Fishes of North America North of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.


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Pumpkinseed

Lepomis gibbosus

By Emily Mae Hoffman

Ohio DNR


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Identification of Lepomis gibbosus

  • Bright red half moon shaped spot on opercle

  • Olive colored with purplish bars

  • Orange breast and belly

  • Wavy green and gold bars on cheeks

  • Small mouth does not reach front of eye

  • 10 – 11 spines in dorsal fin

  • Adults are 20-25 cm

Iowa DNR


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Habitat

  • Prefer clear water, aquatic vegetation, and a substrate of organic matter

  • Not common in rivers

  • Tolerant of high turbidity and little or no water flow

  • Have a home range

Iowa DNR


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Diet

  • Aquatic insects and larvae

  • Snails

  • Small crustaceans

  • Adults will eat small fish

University of Wisconsin


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Reproduction

  • Late spring to early summer

  • Males build colonies of nests in shallow water

  • Male and female swim in a circle in the nest, touching bellies, while the female deposits her eggs

  • Females lay 1,500 eggs

  • Males guard eggs until they hatch and guard young for 5 – 11 days

  • Often hybridizes with bluegill


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Conservation Status

  • No state record

  • Not abundant in Iowa

  • Found in natural lakes more than man-made lakes

Illinois DNR


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Preyed upon by larger fish

Also preyed upon by water birds, such as herons

Eat mosquito larvae

Fun to catch, good to eat

Ecological/Economic Importance


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References

Illinois Department of Natural Resources. 2003. Illinois Fishes Families/Species. Available at http://dnr.state.il.us/lands/education/fish/sunfish.htm.

Iowa Department of Natural Resources. 1987. IowaDNR Fish and Fishing. Available at http://www.iowadnr.net/fish/iafish/pumpkins.html.

Ohio Department of Natural Resources. 2004. Division of Wildlife. Available at http://www.dnr.state.oh.us/wildlife/Fishing/aquanotes-fishid/pumpkin.htm.

University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute. 2002. Available at http://www.seagrant.wisc.edu/greatlakesfish/fpumpkinseed.html.


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