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RCS 6080 Medical and Psychosocial Aspects of Rehabilitation Counseling. Stroke and Hemiplegia. Stroke and Hemiplegia. Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the US and the leading cause of disability approx. 700,000 strokes; 160,000 deaths

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RCS 6080Medical and Psychosocial Aspects of Rehabilitation Counseling

Stroke and Hemiplegia


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Stroke and Hemiplegia

  • Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the US and the leading cause of disability

    • approx. 700,000 strokes; 160,000 deaths

  • Modifiable risk factors include TIA, diabetes, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, substance abuse, and smoking

  • Nonmodifiable risk factors include age, gender, race, and family history


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Stroke and Hemiplegia

  • Of those who survive the initial onset, the most frequent presenting problem is hemiplegia (75-88%)

  • During the acute period, there is high incidence of associated neurological deficits

  • One important medical concern is the incidence of comorbidities that may affect management and rehab


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Types

  • Ischemic (83%)

    • Can be “silent ischemia” (no sx)

    • Caused by atherosclerosis

  • Cerebral thrombosis (most common)

    • blood clot forms in arteries leading from heart to brain (carotid)

    • blocks blood flow

    • Often preceded by TIA

  • Cerebral embolism

    • less frequent

    • blood clot forms elsewhere (embolus), travels through bloodstream, lodges in cerebral artery


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Types

  • Hemorrhagic stroke

    • less common than ischemic strokes

    • more deadly

    • if person survives, better recovery of function

      Why?

    • Ischemic: Blood supply to brain stopped; tissues die, do not regenerate

    • Hemorrhagic: pressure from blood compresses brain, affects function, pressure relieved, function returns


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Hemorrhage

  • subarachnoid hemorrhage

    • blood vessel on surface of brain leaks

    • bleeding into space between brain & skull

  • cerebral hemorrhage (10%)

    • Defective artery in brain bursts

  • Causes:

    • aneurysm (blood-filled pouches that balloon out from weak spot in artery)

    • advancing age, congenital malformation

    • aggravated by hypertension

    • head injury


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Stroke and Hemiplegia

  • Right-Hemisphere Stroke

    • The right hemisphere controls the movement of the left side of the body as well as analytical and perceptual tasks

  • Left-Hemisphere Stroke

    • The left hemisphere controls the movement of the right side of the body as well as speech and language abilities


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Stroke and Hemiplegia

  • Cerebellar Stroke

    • The cerebellum controls many of our reflexes and much of our balance and coordination

  • Brain Stem Stroke

    • The brain stem is the area of the brain that controls all of our involuntary, “life-support” functions as well as abilities such as eye movements, hearing, speech, and swallowing


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Symptoms

  • sudden numbness, weakness face, arm, leg (one side of body)

  • sudden severe headache

  • difficulty seeing in one or both eyes

  • confusion, trouble speaking or understanding

  • dizziness, loss of balance/coordination


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Treatment of a stroke

  • Getting medical help quickly essential!

  • Ischemic stroke:

    • "Clot-busters"

    • tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)

    • Must give within 3 hours

  • Hemorrhagic stroke: correct cause of hemorrhage


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Function after Stroke

Function

Time

I


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Some residual effects of strokes

  • Emotional lability (mood swings, depression)

  • Perceptual effects: Difficulty recognizing, understanding familiar objects

  • Difficulty planning, carrying out simple tasks

  • Loss of awareness (One-side neglect )

  • Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)

  • Aphasia: difficulty putting thoughts into words or understanding speech


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Risk Reduction

  • lifestyle changes

  • aspirin

  • blood thinning medications

  • carotid endarterectomy (remove plaque)

  • Experimental: neurogenesis (regenerating affected neurons)


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Reactions & Rehabilitation

  • social isolation

  • grieving process

  • physical, occupational, speech therapy

  • 20% require long-term care

    Recovery affected by extent of brain damage, patient’s attitude, support system, rehab. team skill


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Voc Rehab and Stroke

  • Estimated that 30% of strokes occur in people under 65

  • One study found a 49% RTW rate for people 21-65 year old

  • Physical factors and aphasia play significant roles and complications in vocational planning


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Voc Rehab and Stroke

  • Some strategies for aphasia

    • Reduction of working hours or territory covered

    • Selective interaction with customers or suppliers with whom the person had dealt with prior to stroke

    • Reliance on overlearned behavior and language in the performance of new tasks

    • Initial help from a relative or close friend

    • Job carving


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Additional Resources and Information from the Web

  • National Stroke Association (www.stroke.org)

  • American Stroke Association (www.strokeassociation.org)

  • National Aphasia Association (www.aphasia.org)

  • Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases (www.strokejournal.org)

  • The Brain Attack Coalition

  • (www.stroke-site.org)


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