Progressions in psychomotor development
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Progressions in Psychomotor Development Birth through 9 years From 2 – 2.5 years A child can Jump from a height of 12” with one foot leading Jump off the floor with both feet Balance on one foot Takes short running steps on toes Throws a 9.5 ball 4-5 feet From 2.5 – 3 years A child can

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From 2 2 5 years l.jpg
From 2 – 2.5 years

  • A child can

    • Jump from a height of 12” with one foot leading

    • Jump off the floor with both feet

    • Balance on one foot

    • Takes short running steps on toes

    • Throws a 9.5 ball 4-5 feet


From 2 5 3 years l.jpg
From 2.5 – 3 years

  • A child can

    • Jump from a height of 18” with one foot leading

    • Stands on a walking board 6 cm. wide

    • Attempts to step while on walking board

    • Catches a 16.25 inch ball with arms straight


From 3 3 5 years l.jpg
From 3 – 3.5 years

  • Child can

    • Walk backwards easily

    • Walk UP stairs alternating feet, no rails

    • Make sharp turns while running

    • Jump forward and land on both feet

    • Rises to feet from a kneeling position in a mature pattern

    • Climb on playground equipment

    • Jumps down from 8 inch elevation with both feet together

    • Demonstrates elementary hopping pattern – 1 foot


From 3 5 to 4 years l.jpg
From 3.5 to 4 years

  • Child can

    • Walk down stairs, alternating feet, WITH use of rail

    • Jump from a height of 12” with feet together;

    • Performs 3 consecutive hops on preferred foot

    • Throw a tennis ball for distance (8-9 feet) using a forward stance

    • Identify body planes

    • Catches a 16.25 inch ball with elbows in front


From 4 4 5 years l.jpg
From 4 – 4.5 years

  • Child can

    • Stand/balances on one foot for 4-8 seconds

    • Walk on the balance beam

    • Balance while changing direction, from the trunk

    • Walk up and down stairs WITHOUT rail, alternating feet

    • Run smoothly, at alternating speeds

    • Jump forward, 8-10 inches; running jump 22-33 inches

    • Jump over a rope 2 inches high


4 4 5 years continued l.jpg
4 – 4.5 years - continued

  • Child can

    • Catch a large ball with arms flexed at the elbow

    • Throw a tennis ball overhand with trunk rotation

    • Bounce a large playground ball

    • Kick a large playground ball with accuracy

    • Ride a tricycle expertly

    • Turn a forward summersault


From 4 5 5 years l.jpg
From 4.5 – 5 years

  • Child can

    • Jump backward

    • Jump over a stationary rope 4” high

    • Slide down a playground slide

    • Swing on a playground swing


From 5 5 5 years l.jpg
From 5 – 5.5 years

  • Child can

    • Stand on one foot without visual feedback

    • Walk the balance beam forward, sideways and backwards

    • Run 35 feet in 10 seconds

    • Hop 45 feet in 10 seconds

    • Throw a tennis ball with trunk rotation and forward weight shift (step)

    • Catch a bounced tennis ball with hands


From 5 5 5 yrs continued l.jpg
From 5 – 5.5 yrs. - continued

  • Child can

    • Hit a T-ball with a bat

    • March, keeping time to the music

    • Use skates, sled, wagon or scooter well

    • Gallop leading with both preferred and non-preferred leg

    • Kicks a soccer ball through the air a distance of 8-11.5 feet

    • Alternates feet in basic skipping movements


From 5 5 6 years l.jpg
From 5.5 – 6 years

  • Child can

    • Throw a 9.5 inch ball 14-15 feet

    • Catch a 16.25 inch ball with elbows at the side of the body


From 6 to 7 years l.jpg
From 6 to 7 years

  • Child can

    • Skip at an intermediate level

    • Throw a softball for distance

      • Boys - 34.1 feet

      • Girls - 19 feet

    • Walk on a balance beam 4 cm wide and 2.5 meters long in 9 seconds stepping off less than once per trial

    • Run

      • Boys - 4.2 yd/sec.

      • Girls - 4.1 yd/sec.


6 7 years continued l.jpg
6 – 7 years - continued

  • Child can

    • Perform a standing broad jump

      • Boys - 37+ inches

      • Girls - 36+ inches

    • Perform a standing high jump of 8 inches

    • Kick a soccer ball in the air a distance of 10-18 feet

    • Perform 2-2 hopping pattern and skip in mature pattern ~ 6.5 yrs [Girls].

    • Hop 15 ft. on right and left feet [Boys]


6 7 years continued19 l.jpg
6 – 7 years - continued

  • Child can

    • Visually fixate on and pursue (track) an object through all meridia and cross the mid-line smoothly

      • while Keeping the head/neck in a fixed position

    • Can cross mid-line in gross and fine motor activities in a differentiated [smooth and easy] fashion


From 7 8 years l.jpg
From 7 – 8 years

  • Child can

    • Run

      • Boys – 4.6 yd/sec.

      • Girls – 4.4 yd/sec.

    • Throw softball for distance

      • Boys – 45+ feet

      • Girls – 25+ feet

    • Perform a standing broad jump

      • Boys – 41+ inches

      • Girls – 40 inches


7 8 years continued l.jpg
7 – 8 years - continued

  • Most girls can perform 3-2 hopping pattern

  • Both boys and girls Mature skip in mature fashion


From 8 9 years l.jpg
From 8 – 9 years

  • Child can

    • Throw a softball for distance

      • Boys – 59 ft.

      • Girls – 34 ft.

    • Run

      • Boys - 5.1 yd/sec.

      • Girls – 4.6 yd/sec.

    • Perform a standing broad jump

      • Boys – 46+ inches

      • Girls – 46 inches


Also from 8 9 years l.jpg
Also from 8-9 years

  • Most boys can perform 2-2 hopping pattern



Vision l.jpg
VISION

  • TWO TYPES:

    • REFRACTIVE

      (focal vision) …

      VERSUSORTHOPTIC(related todepth perception and balance)

      • THESE ARE THE CRITICAL COMPONENTS OF VISION AND VISUAL DEVELOPMENT


Slide26 l.jpg

The critical subcomponentsof vision and visual development

VISUAL ACUITY

REFRACTIVE

FIGURE-GROUND PERCEPTION

ORTHOPTIC

DEPTH PERCEPTION

ORTHOPTIC

VISUAL-MOTOR COORDINATION

OPTHOPTIC


Slide27 l.jpg

  • Visual Acuity

    -Static Vision(pick out

    detail in stationary objects,

    Snellen chart: 20/20)

    -Dynamic Vision (pick

    out detail in moving

    objects)

    -Developmental aspects (rapid improvement 5-7, plateau 7-8, mature 10-12)


Slide28 l.jpg

  • Figure-Ground

    Perception

     where

    -Figure (specific object)

    -Ground(background object(s))

    -Developmental aspects (slow improvement 3-4, rapid improvement 4-6, mature 8-12)

  • An element of depth perception


Slide29 l.jpg

Depth Perception judging distance

-accomplished via depth cues

- (monocular= size, texture, distance, shading etc.)

- (binocular = retinal disparity, convergence)

-Developmental aspects  (frequent errors 3-4 yrs., few errors 5-6 yrs.,rapid improvement 7-11 yrs., mature 12 yr.)


Slide30 l.jpg

  • Visual-Motor Coordination the ability to coordinate vision with body

    movements

    -A.K.A. Object tracking& interception

    - Developmental aspects  (rapid improvement 3-7 yrs., slow improvement, 7-9 yrs., mature 11-12 yrs.)


Development of body image l.jpg
Development of Body Image

  • Identification of Body Parts

  • Understanding the Function of Body Parts

  • Efficient Utilization of Space

  • Right-left and Bi-Lateral Discriminations during Movement Function


A child from birth through 3 can visually verbally identify these body parts l.jpg

Birth

1 year 

3 years 

Can watch the hand move

Stomach, head , parts of face, limbs, hands, fingers and toes

Objects in relation to body planes, e.g., “things are in front, to the back or to the side of ..”

A child from birth through 3 can visually/verbally identify these body parts


Also a child at age 3 l.jpg
Also …. a child at age 3

  • Knows the words “right” and “left,” but not that they are on opposite sides of the body


A child from 5 through 7 can visually verbally identify these body parts l.jpg

5 years

6 years 

7 years 

Shoulders, elbows, knees; middle and ring fingers

Trunk appears in drawings; thighs, forearms, etc. identified

Wrists, ankles, shins, parts of limbs

A child from 5 through 7 can visually/verbally identify these body parts


Left right identification 5 9 years l.jpg

5 years

6 years 

7 years 

8 years 

9 years 

Knows right and left are on opposite sides but is unable to tell which is which

Some left-right judgments made accurately

More correct right-left judgments on self and in letters, numbers etc.

Can identify the left-right of others when facing them

Can describe the left-right movements of others while watching them

Left-right identification 5 – 9 years



Note critical developmental skills of prehension grasping and releasing l.jpg
Note  Critical Developmental Skills of Prehension, Grasping and Releasing

  • Prehension grasping and releasing e.g. tennis ball, pencil, etc.

    • Effective grasping (9 mos.)

    • Thumb opposition (9-10 mos.)

    • Object release (18 mos.)


Manipulating a writing instrument l.jpg
Manipulating a Writing Instrument

  • Sequence = supination, pronation, dynamic tripod (7 yrs.)

    • Posture, hand position


Continued fine motor manipulative behavior l.jpg
Continued - Fine Motor Manipulative Behavior

  • Drawing and writing



Stage 1 l.jpg
Stage 1

  • Scribbling developing hand-eye coordination  (15-20 MOS.)


Stage 2 l.jpg
Stage 2

  • Development of Diagrams and combinations of diagrams ~ 1-2 yrs.


Stage 3 l.jpg
Stage 3

  • Combine stage  basic geometric figures (spirals, crosses)  to more precise figures, e.g., circles, squares, etc. ~ 2 yrs



Stage 4 l.jpg
Stage 4

  • Aggregate stage  combines diagrams and figuresinto combinations (3+) resulting in more complex drawings 3/7 yrs.


Stage 5 l.jpg
Stage 5

  • Pictorial stage  increased precision and complexity~ 8-9 yrs.


Fine motor development printing and writing patterns l.jpg
Fine motor development – printing and writing patterns

4 yr. olds may be able to print recognizable letters/numbers

No particular organizational pattern for numbers/letters


Slide55 l.jpg

  • 5-6 yrs. = name printing

    • 5 yrs. = ½ - 2” upper case letters

    • Letters become larger toward end of name

    • 6 yrs. = similar with occasional reversals – may include surname

    • By 7 letters are ~1/4 inches – lowercase letters may continue to be difficult


By 3 rd grade l.jpg
By 3 rd grade

  • Single stroke letters easier (I, c, l)

  • Horizontal-vertical letters follow (E, T)

  • Letters with Slants (horizontal-vertical) follow

    • (K, B, Z)

  • Spacing (9 yrs.)


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