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Development of DSSS (Driving Safety Support Systems) Masao FUKUSHIMA Engineering Director IT & ITS Engineering Department, NISSAN MOTOR CO.,LTD [email protected] -- Contents -- What is DSSS? Activity for DSSS Level II Joint Test Evaluation of Effectiveness Actualization

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Development of DSSS

(Driving Safety Support Systems)

Masao FUKUSHIMA

Engineering Director

IT & ITS Engineering Department,

NISSAN MOTOR CO.,LTD

[email protected]


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-- Contents --

  • What is DSSS?

  • Activity for DSSS Level II

  • Joint Test

  • Evaluation of Effectiveness

  • Actualization

  • Summary


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1. What is DSSS?


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Cooperative ITS in Japan

DSSS

(V-I ordinary road)

SmartWay

(V-I highway)

ASV

(V-V)

IR-Beacon

DSRC

Radio


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UTMS (Universal Traffic Management Society of Japan)

- Established in 1996 as a corporate juridical person

- Develops traffic management systems using IR Beacon

cooperating with National Police Agency

Driving Safety Support Systems


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DSSS Level II System Configuration

Road Shape

Traffic Sign

Traffic Signal

Road-side Sensor

Create Down-Link Data

Road-side Unit

IR Beacon

Infrastructure to vehicle communication

On-Board Unit

Data filtering and timing decision

Alert by display, voice, sound...


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2.Activity for DSSS Level II


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Activity for DSSS Level II

Field Operational Test (FOT) is in operation in 5 regions

  • System development

  • Evaluation of the effectiveness

Tochigi DSSS

Nov 2007--

  • Common specification

    • Service

    • Data communication

    • HMI concept

  • Common evaluation method

Tokyo DSSS

Nov 2009--

Kanagawa DSSS

Oct 2006--

Aichi DSSS

Nov 2006--

Hiroshima DSSS

Jan 2008--


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Activity for DSSS Level II

Field Operational Test (FOT) is in operation in 5 regions

  • System development

  • Evaluation of the effectiveness

HONDA 30

Nov 2007--

  • Common specification

    • Service

    • Data communication

    • HMI concept

  • Common evaluation method

Tokyo DSSS

Nov 2009--

NISSAN 2,000

Oct 2006--

TOYOTA 200

Nov 2006--

MAZDA 50

Jan 2008--


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DSSS Level IIHMI concept

System said “GO”.

OK Let’s go

Define the HMI concept:

oncoming

car

  • Easy-to-understand system condition

  • Easy-to-understand support target

  • Easy-to-understand meaning of info.

  • Easy-to-understand urgent level

  • Avoid driver’s over-trust and distrust

  • System failure tolerance

  • System performance tolerance

  • Avoid miscommunication

    • Information which leads the driver’s misunderstanding

    • Conflict information with traffic signal

GO!

NOW!!

Bad case: Right-Turn scene


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3. JointTest


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Joint Test in Tokyo

Conduct a joint test by gathering the local DSSS results and involving automotive manufacturers.

Crossing collision prevention

Stop sign recognition enhancement

Right-turn collision prevention

Crossing pedestrian recognition enhancement

Rear-end collision prevention

Signal recognition enhancement

Signal recognition enhancement

Rear-end collision prevention

Right-turn collision prevention

Left-turn collision prevention

Rear-end collision prevention

Crossing collision prevention

Stop sign recognition enhancement

Crossing bicycle collision prevention

Stop sign recognition enhancement

Right-turn collision prevention

Map [email protected] ZENRIN

Z08LC No. 036


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Joint Test in Tokyo

3

1

4

2

Rear-end collision prevention

Signal recognition enhancement

Stop sign recognition enhancement

Crossing collision prevention

5

8

7

6

Left-turn collision prevention

Crossing pedestrian recognition enhancement

Right-turn collision prevention

Crossing bicycle collision prevention


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4.Evaluation of Effectiveness


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Data Log System for Evaluation of Effectiveness

  • 2,000 general users will evaluate the system receptivity through their everyday car life without being conscious of the test.

  • Monitor the following data from the vehicles passing through the test point to statistically record the change in driver behavior depending on the presence of an alert and onboard unit.

  • vehicle velocity, deceleration G, throttle rate, braking condition, etc [A] [B]

  • result of system decision (Presence of alert) [B]

  • stopping time at the stop line (stop sign) [Video]

Test vehicles

(2,000)

  • vehicle velocity [A] [B]

  • stopping time at the stop line (stop sign) [Video]

Others

Video Camera

IR Beacon for estimation

IR Beacon for information

and estimation

B

Velocity Sensor

A


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Test Site

3

1

2

Beacon for evaluation

Signal recognition enhancement

Stop sign recognition enhancement

Crossing collision prevention

Beacon for Info.

東福院入口

Vehicle detector

Video for evaluation

Malado

間門

Tofukuin

Beacon for evaluation

地図データ ©2008 ZENRIN

Z08LC第036号


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Participants Characteristics

Under 5 years

20’s

Over 70’s

5-10 years

30’s

Over 30 years

60’s

11-20

years

40’s

50’s

21-30 years

Age group of participants

Driving experience

Others

Business

Commute

Shopping

Delivery & pick up

Purpose of uses


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LOG Details

Period : 2006.10-2008.9


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Test Results

Stop Sign Alert

41% of vehicles exceed the speed limit. System can help reduce that rate to 23%, especially in high speed vehicles.

Vehicles with the system show a 35% increase in the complete stop rate at the stop line.

50

Monitors

2006.10-2007.6

2007.7-2008.3

2008.4-9

40

Incomplete stop

24.2%

30

General cars

59.0%

Complete stop

rate %→

20

41.0%

75.8%

10

with

system

without

system

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

5

Vehicle behavior on stop line

Aoba - Velocity at No. 2 Beacon


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Test Results

Red Signal Alert

70% of vehicles exceed the speed limit. System can help reduce that rate to 56%, especially in high speed vehicles.

Monitor cars

2006.10-2007.6

2007.7-2008.3

2008.4-9

30

General vehicles

20

rate %→

10

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

5

100km/h

Tofukuin - Velocity at No. 2 Beacon


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Test Results

Crossing Collision

38% of vehicles exceed the speed at which drivers can avoid a crash if a vehicle appears from the side road. System can help reduce rate to 22%, especially in high speed vehicles.

30

2007.7-2008.3

Dangerous Speed

w/ side road vehicles

w/o side road vehicles

General vehicles

36.8%

Brake OFF

59.5%

20

63.2%

10

Brake ON

40.5%

rate %→

Speed limit

w/o Info.

w/ Info.

0

km/h

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

Aoba - Velocity at No. 2 Beacon


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Test Results

Learning Adaptation

Approaching speed before an intersection is decreasing as time passes. Since the intersection is not visible from the driver at this point, it is considered that the driver is learning potential dangers.

Aoba/Change of vehicle velocity at the No. 1 beacon

2006.10-2007.6

2007.7-2008.3

2008.4-9

20

rate %→

10

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

km/h

5


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Test Results

Over-trust

Approaching speed before an intersection is decreasing as time passes. There is no observable trend of driver’s over-trust even if the vehicle does not provide any alert.

30

Aoba/Change of vehicle velocity at the No.1 beacon

No alert case = No side road vehicles case

2006.10-2007.6

2007.7-2008.3

2008.4-9

20

an example of over-trust

rate %→

10

0

km/h

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90


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Result of a questionnaire survey

System Acceptability

sample n=1,200/1,800

Expectation for this system

98% are positive for wide penetration of this system.

<Expectations for this system>

86.6%

Strongly expect

11.0%

Neutral

1.6%

0.3%

Not expect

0.5%


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Result of a questionnaire survey

Change in Driving Behavior

sample n=1,200/1,800

This kind of alert may be especially effective for women and older people

100% of older people and 88% of women replied that they decelerated the vehicle in response to the alert or attention information

did nothing

Braking

released gas pedal

N=1084

male

21.0%

26.7%

52.3%

N=116

50.0%

11.5%

female

38.5%

under 60

years old

N=929

38.4%

25.0%

25.0%

over 60

years old

N=271

0%

61.6%

38.0%


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Result of a questionnaire survey

Change in Driving Behavior

sample n=1,200/1,800

The ripple effect of alert on the test spot.

70% of participants paid attention at the intersections other than test spots.

Slow down the vehicle velocity

Pay more attention

No change

Stop sign

N=307

26.4%

34.9%

38.8%

Crossing

N=301

53.2%

32.2%

14.6%

Red signal

N=148

17.6%

48.0%

34.5%


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Test Results Summary

< Change in Driver Behavior >

Obtained good quantitative results that information support contributes to changing driver behavior to safer driving.

Monitor

cars

General vehicles

Change

Service

Rate of overspeeding vehicles

41%

23%

Stop sign recognition enhancement

18Point

Rate of overspeeding vehicles

70%

56%

Signal recognition enhancement

14Point

Rate of crash unavoidable vehicles

Crossing collision prevention

16Point

38%

22%

<Other Changes>

- No influence of drivers’ experience with the system is found during 2.5 years of monitoring test.

  • No influence of driver’s over-trust is found during 2.5 years of monitoring test even if no information is provided at the test site.

    • → Drivers who experienced this system slow down before an intersection. (Driver’s leaning adaptation)


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5. Actualization


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Time Schedule of Intersection Issue

Government started “ITS-Safety 2010” national project by public-private sectors in order to actualize cooperated safety support system using V-I, V-V from 2010

Actualization

Project start

Preparation

Joint FOT in TOKYO

Demo 25-28 Feb

Schedule

Nissan FOT

Toyota

DSSS

Schedule

local, elementary

Honda

other activities

Mazda

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

We hope that the success of Nissan FOT will contribute to government plan of V-I, V-V safety support system actualization in 2010.


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6. Summary


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Summary

  • Obtained the quantitative effect of the system through Kanagawa DSSS test involving 2,000 customer vehicles.

  • Information support contributes to changing driver behavior to safer driving.

  • A large majority are positive for wide penetration of the system.

  • 100% of older people and 88% of women said they decelerated the vehicle in response to alert or attention information.

  • Joint test is in operation with automobile manufacturers.

    Effectiveness of the test will be verified by April 2009.

  • Automobile manufacturers will prepare for On-Board Units toward the practical use of this system in 2010


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Thank you for your attention.

[email protected]


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