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1. Copyright „2006 Progressive Business Publications First Aid Todayís session is on the topic of first aid. Although we hope you have to use what you learn very infrequently, accidents, injuries and medical emergencies can and do occur. And when they do, your response can make the difference between life and death. So itís very important that everyone be able to provide basic first aid in the event of a medical emergency. What is first aid? Very simply, itís what you can do to assist the victim before medical help arrives. Today weíre going to look at the type of help you may be called on to offer to an injured person in the event of an accident or medical emergency before help arrives. Todayís session is on the topic of first aid. Although we hope you have to use what you learn very infrequently, accidents, injuries and medical emergencies can and do occur. And when they do, your response can make the difference between life and death. So itís very important that everyone be able to provide basic first aid in the event of a medical emergency. What is first aid? Very simply, itís what you can do to assist the victim before medical help arrives. Today weíre going to look at the type of help you may be called on to offer to an injured person in the event of an accident or medical emergency before help arrives.

2. Copyright „2006 Progressive Business Publications Why Learn First Aid? Each year there are: 10,000 fatalities on the job 5.5 million non-fatal worker-related injuries Prompt care can mean the difference between: Life and death Minor and debilitating injuries Temporary and permanent injuries Quick and prolonged recoveries Why learn first aid? Because as much as we try to avoid them, accidents happen. People get hurt. Each year, roughly 10,000 workers die on the job. Not all of this is the result of work-related accidents. Some die as a result of medical emergencies related to pre-existing medical conditions. In many cases, had proper first aid been given immediately at the scene by a co-worker, they still might be alive. Over 5.5 million non-fatal work-related injuries occur each year that require some form of first aid or medical assistance. But, non-fatal doesnít mean they arenít critical. Some are very serious. Others are minor, but be aware that if the right care isnít given before proper medical help arrives, certain conditions can turn a minor injury into a life-threatening situation Being prepared for medical emergencies and knowing the basics of first aid response can make a big difference in the lives of your co-workers. What you do in the first few instants of a medical emergency can mean the difference between life and death, especially in the cases of accidents. Prompt first aid care can also minimize the extent of injuries. Oftentimes thatís the difference between a temporary injury and a debilitating lifelong condition, or a speedy recovery and a prolonged recovery. Why learn first aid? Because as much as we try to avoid them, accidents happen. People get hurt. Each year, roughly 10,000 workers die on the job. Not all of this is the result of work-related accidents. Some die as a result of medical emergencies related to pre-existing medical conditions. In many cases, had proper first aid been given immediately at the scene by a co-worker, they still might be alive. Over 5.5 million non-fatal work-related injuries occur each year that require some form of first aid or medical assistance. But, non-fatal doesnít mean they arenít critical. Some are very serious. Others are minor, but be aware that if the right care isnít given before proper medical help arrives, certain conditions can turn a minor injury into a life-threatening situation Being prepared for medical emergencies and knowing the basics of first aid response can make a big difference in the lives of your co-workers. What you do in the first few instants of a medical emergency can mean the difference between life and death, especially in the cases of accidents. Prompt first aid care can also minimize the extent of injuries. Oftentimes thatís the difference between a temporary injury and a debilitating lifelong condition, or a speedy recovery and a prolonged recovery.

3. Copyright „2006 Progressive Business Publications Be Prepared Know locations of first aid kits Know local emergency numbers Ambulance, fire, police, poison control Know designated first responders Know associates certified in CPR Be ready to help Being ready to help means being prepared to respond properly in an emergency. Know the location of your nearest first aid kits. In order to be ready to call for help, know the local emergency phone numbers. These would include ambulance, fire, police and the poison control center. Some of your co-workers may have been given extensive first aid training and been designated as first responders. Know the name and location of the first responder nearest to your work area. Some of your co-workers may know CPR, or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Be aware of who they are in case thereís ever a situation which requires CPR to be administered. Being ready to help means being prepared to respond properly in an emergency. Know the location of your nearest first aid kits. In order to be ready to call for help, know the local emergency phone numbers. These would include ambulance, fire, police and the poison control center. Some of your co-workers may have been given extensive first aid training and been designated as first responders. Know the name and location of the first responder nearest to your work area. Some of your co-workers may know CPR, or cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Be aware of who they are in case thereís ever a situation which requires CPR to be administered.

4. Copyright „2006 Progressive Business Publications First Aid Kits Contents: 1 absorbent compress 16 adhesive bandages 1 adhesive tape 10 antiseptic application 6 burn application 2 medical exam gloves 4 sterile pads 1 triangular bandage Again, in order to provide the most prompt care possible, make sure you know where your first aid kits are located. The last thing you want to be doing in an emergency situation is hunting around for one. Seconds count. In the kits you will find the emergency equipment needed to provide much of the types of care weíre going to be covering in todayís session. These include bandages, adhesive tape, antiseptic solution, burn application, medical exam gloves, sterile pads and bandages. Again, in order to provide the most prompt care possible, make sure you know where your first aid kits are located. The last thing you want to be doing in an emergency situation is hunting around for one. Seconds count. In the kits you will find the emergency equipment needed to provide much of the types of care weíre going to be covering in todayís session. These include bandages, adhesive tape, antiseptic solution, burn application, medical exam gloves, sterile pads and bandages.

5. Copyright „2006 Progressive Business Publications Responding to an Emergency: General Rules Rule #1: Keep calm Assess the situation Who requires help? Have hazards been controlled? Alert medical assistance Know local emergency phone numbers Keep the victim calm Notify supervisor Although every emergency is different, there are some general rules you should apply if responding. Rule number one Ė keep calm. Donít panic. Stress, fear and anxiety are normal reactions, but these emotions can cause you to be indecisive and delay action or even take the wrong action. Before beginning to provide care, always assess the scene. How many people are there who require care? Also make sure that you and the victim are not in any other danger. For example, are there other hazards present? Machinery thatís still moving, exposed electrical wires, fire, spills, chemicals, or fumes? Where possible, attempt to control any hazards that could harm you or cause further injury to the victim. For an injury other than a minor cut or bruise, once youíve stabilized the situation, seek professional emergency help immediately. If possible, have someone stay with the victim while someone calls for help. Know where the nearest telephone is located. Make sure whoever calls is able to give precise information to the emergency service on the call. Until helps arrives, attempt to keep the victim as calm and as comfortable as possible. And keep yourself calm. Along with getting medical attention for all injuries, itís equally important that you report all injuries and incidents to your supervisor. Itís important that he or she check into the causes of every job-related injury, regardless of how minor, to find out exactly how it happened. There may be unsafe procedures or unsafe equipment involved. And correcting them can prevent similar injuries in the future. Although every emergency is different, there are some general rules you should apply if responding. Rule number one Ė keep calm. Donít panic. Stress, fear and anxiety are normal reactions, but these emotions can cause you to be indecisive and delay action or even take the wrong action. Before beginning to provide care, always assess the scene. How many people are there who require care? Also make sure that you and the victim are not in any other danger. For example, are there other hazards present? Machinery thatís still moving, exposed electrical wires, fire, spills, chemicals, or fumes? Where possible, attempt to control any hazards that could harm you or cause further injury to the victim. For an injury other than a minor cut or bruise, once youíve stabilized the situation, seek professional emergency help immediately. If possible, have someone stay with the victim while someone calls for help. Know where the nearest telephone is located. Make sure whoever calls is able to give precise information to the emergency service on the call. Until helps arrives, attempt to keep the victim as calm and as comfortable as possible. And keep yourself calm. Along with getting medical attention for all injuries, itís equally important that you report all injuries and incidents to your supervisor. Itís important that he or she check into the causes of every job-related injury, regardless of how minor, to find out exactly how it happened. There may be unsafe procedures or unsafe equipment involved. And correcting them can prevent similar injuries in the future.

6. Copyright „2006 Progressive Business Publications Assess the Status of the Victim Is victim conscious? Are airways blocked? Is victim breathing? Does victim have a pulse? Is victim bleeding? Are there secondary injuries? Broken bones, dislocations or sprains, back or spinal injuries Now that weíve seen some general rules, weíll start looking at specific procedures. Letís start with a what-if situation. Youíve just found a fellow worker lying on the ground not moving. You see no visible hazards. Now what? What are the things you should immediately check? The first concern is consciousness. If the victim appears to be unconscious, try and wake them. Just shout, ďAre you OK?Ē Sometimes they may just be sleeping, or if not, they may regain consciousness and give you insight into what happened. If the victim does not respond, start by checking for blockages of the airway. A person whoís unconscious can lose their ability to keep their airway clear by normal methods. Open their mouths and check for visible blockages of the airway and remove any blockages. Check to see that the victim is breathing. Put your ear to within an inch of the victimís mouth to listen for breathing while watching for the rise and fall of the chest. The next concern is circulation. Does the victim have a pulse? If not, CPR may be necessary. But note that only persons trained in CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) should ever administer CPR. Is the victim bleeding? Once youíve assessed airways, breathing, circulation and bleeding, you can look for any secondary injuries such as broken bones, dislocations, sprains or back or spinal injuries. These are the primary things you are looking for when approaching the victim. Now weíll see what you do when faced with several types of events requiring basic first aid procedures. Now that weíve seen some general rules, weíll start looking at specific procedures. Letís start with a what-if situation. Youíve just found a fellow worker lying on the ground not moving. You see no visible hazards. Now what? What are the things you should immediately check? The first concern is consciousness. If the victim appears to be unconscious, try and wake them. Just shout, ďAre you OK?Ē Sometimes they may just be sleeping, or if not, they may regain consciousness and give you insight into what happened. If the victim does not respond, start by checking for blockages of the airway. A person whoís unconscious can lose their ability to keep their airway clear by normal methods. Open their mouths and check for visible blockages of the airway and remove any blockages. Check to see that the victim is breathing. Put your ear to within an inch of the victimís mouth to listen for breathing while watching for the rise and fall of the chest. The next concern is circulation. Does the victim have a pulse? If not, CPR may be necessary. But note that only persons trained in CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) should ever administer CPR. Is the victim bleeding? Once youíve assessed airways, breathing, circulation and bleeding, you can look for any secondary injuries such as broken bones, dislocations, sprains or back or spinal injuries. These are the primary things you are looking for when approaching the victim. Now weíll see what you do when faced with several types of events requiring basic first aid procedures.

7. Copyright „2006 Progressive Business Publications Rescue Breathing Place person on back Open airway by tilting head back Clear mouth and throat of obstructions Pinch nose and seal your lips tight around victimís mouth Give 2 full breaths for 1 to 1 1/2 seconds each Give 1 breath every 5 seconds Check pulse What should you do if the victim isnít breathing? If possible, have someone immediately call for an ambulance. Then apply whatís called ďrescue breathingĒ until medical help arrives. Seconds count, so start immediately. Delay of rescue breathing may cost the victim's life. To perform rescue breathing, if you believe thereís no chance of a head or neck injury, place the victim on his or her back, face up. Tilt the head back gently to improve the airway. Then lift the chin and open the mouth. Re-check the mouth and throat for any obstructions with your fingers and clear anything you find. Next, keeping the victimís head tilted back, pinch the nose shut. Take a deep breath, seal your lips tight around the victim's mouth and breathe out for two seconds. Look, listen and feel for the victimís breathing between breaths. Give one full breath every five seconds. Check for a pulse at the side of the neck for five to ten seconds. Recheck the pulse every minute. If the victim has a pulse, but is not breathing, continue rescue breathing. Note: Rescue breathing is not CPR, although itís similar. In the event that the victim does not have a pulse, CPR will be necessary. If you are certified in CPR, begin the process. If not, attempt to locate someone who has been certified as quickly as possible. What should you do if the victim isnít breathing? If possible, have someone immediately call for an ambulance. Then apply whatís called ďrescue breathingĒ until medical help arrives. Seconds count, so start immediately. Delay of rescue breathing may cost the victim's life. To perform rescue breathing, if you believe thereís no chance of a head or neck injury, place the victim on his or her back, face up. Tilt the head back gently to improve the airway. Then lift the chin and open the mouth. Re-check the mouth and throat for any obstructions with your fingers and clear anything you find. Next, keeping the victimís head tilted back, pinch the nose shut. Take a deep breath, seal your lips tight around the victim's mouth and breathe out for two seconds. Look, listen and feel for the victimís breathing between breaths. Give one full breath every five seconds. Check for a pulse at the side of the neck for five to ten seconds. Recheck the pulse every minute. If the victim has a pulse, but is not breathing, continue rescue breathing. Note: Rescue breathing is not CPR, although itís similar. In the event that the victim does not have a pulse, CPR will be necessary. If you are certified in CPR, begin the process. If not, attempt to locate someone who has been certified as quickly as possible.

8. Copyright „2006 Progressive Business Publications Bleeding Do not touch blood with bare hands Use gloves or other personal protective equipment Control the bleeding by Putting direct pressure on the wound Elevating the wound above the heart Using pressure points if needed Use a tourniquet only as a last resort: Can risk permanent tissue damage leading to amputation Blood loss can turn a moderate injury into a fatal injury. Even minor scrapes and cuts need prompt attention because of the risk of infection. Itís very important never to come into contact with blood because of the risk of transmission of HIV and other bloodborne diseases. If possible, first put on rubber or latex gloves before touching any blood. If these arenít available, use a clean plastic bag to cover your hands. You goal is to control any bleeding. The best way to do this is to apply direct pressure to the wound. Place a clean cloth on the wound and press down with the palm of your hand for five minutes until the bleeding stops. Where possible, elevate the wound above the heart. Once the bleeding has stopped, secure the cloth with a bandage and keep it elevated. If the bleeding is very serious, you can apply additional pressure to a pressure point to help reduce bleeding. Pressure points are located either inside of the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow, or in the groin area where the leg joins the body. Only use the pressure points if elevation and direct pressure haven't controlled the bleeding. For very severe bleeding, the last option is a tourniquet. All other methods of controlling the bleeding should be tried before a tourniquet is applied, because use of a tourniquet may cause tissue damage that might later require the amputation of an arm or leg. Wrap an item like a belt or clothing 2-4 inches above the injury and use a thick stick or long, slender item (screwdriver, wrench, etc.) as a twister to tighten the tourniquet. Once applied, it must stay snug until the victim arrives at the hospital. Blood loss can turn a moderate injury into a fatal injury. Even minor scrapes and cuts need prompt attention because of the risk of infection. Itís very important never to come into contact with blood because of the risk of transmission of HIV and other bloodborne diseases. If possible, first put on rubber or latex gloves before touching any blood. If these arenít available, use a clean plastic bag to cover your hands. You goal is to control any bleeding. The best way to do this is to apply direct pressure to the wound. Place a clean cloth on the wound and press down with the palm of your hand for five minutes until the bleeding stops. Where possible, elevate the wound above the heart. Once the bleeding has stopped, secure the cloth with a bandage and keep it elevated. If the bleeding is very serious, you can apply additional pressure to a pressure point to help reduce bleeding. Pressure points are located either inside of the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow, or in the groin area where the leg joins the body. Only use the pressure points if elevation and direct pressure haven't controlled the bleeding. For very severe bleeding, the last option is a tourniquet. All other methods of controlling the bleeding should be tried before a tourniquet is applied, because use of a tourniquet may cause tissue damage that might later require the amputation of an arm or leg. Wrap an item like a belt or clothing 2-4 inches above the injury and use a thick stick or long, slender item (screwdriver, wrench, etc.) as a twister to tighten the tourniquet. Once applied, it must stay snug until the victim arrives at the hospital.

9. Copyright „2006 Progressive Business Publications Saving Limbs or Fingers Recover the severed part Rinse severed part in clean water Wrap in moist towel Place in clean plastic bag and seal Cool by resting on ice Never allow direct contact with ice Never place in freezer Be sure package transported to medical facility where victim was taken There are times when accidents happen that will result in the severing of a finger or even a limb. However, they can be reattached. In fact, the success rate ranges from 80-95% for successful reattachment and functional use. But for that to happen, they must be properly handled. First, recover the severed part. If you have to retrieve it from inside a piece of equipment, let the victim be transported to a medical facility without it. Another emergency vehicle can bring the severed part once itís retrieved. Once you have it, rinse the severed part in clean water. Wrap it in a moist towel and cover it completely. Place the towel-wrapped part in a clean, plastic bag and seal the bag. If possible, label the bag, including the victimís name, the date, location and other info. If a plastic bag is not available, cover the towel completely with plastic wrap. Cool the bag or wrapped part on ice. Itís important you never allow direct contact with ice or place a severed part in a freezer, since tissue could be damaged, making successful reattachment less likely. Be sure that everyone involved, including emergency vehicle personnel, hospital admitting staff, doctors and nurses, knows the severed part is with the victim or will arrive soon. There are times when accidents happen that will result in the severing of a finger or even a limb. However, they can be reattached. In fact, the success rate ranges from 80-95% for successful reattachment and functional use. But for that to happen, they must be properly handled. First, recover the severed part. If you have to retrieve it from inside a piece of equipment, let the victim be transported to a medical facility without it. Another emergency vehicle can bring the severed part once itís retrieved. Once you have it, rinse the severed part in clean water. Wrap it in a moist towel and cover it completely. Place the towel-wrapped part in a clean, plastic bag and seal the bag. If possible, label the bag, including the victimís name, the date, location and other info. If a plastic bag is not available, cover the towel completely with plastic wrap. Cool the bag or wrapped part on ice. Itís important you never allow direct contact with ice or place a severed part in a freezer, since tissue could be damaged, making successful reattachment less likely. Be sure that everyone involved, including emergency vehicle personnel, hospital admitting staff, doctors and nurses, knows the severed part is with the victim or will arrive soon.

10. Copyright „2006 Progressive Business Publications Shock Can be life threatening and result in death Symptoms: cold sweat, weakness, irregular breathing, chills, pale or bluish lips, confusion, nausea and vomiting Treatment: Have victim lie down with legs elevated Cover with blanket or clothes to keep warm No food or drink Get medical help Even if the injury doesn't cause death, the victim can still go into shock and die. Shock usually accompanies severe injury or emotional upset and occurs when trauma causes a lack of oxygen in major organs and tissues. Symptoms can include cold and clammy skin, weakness, irregular breathing, confusion, chills, pale or bluish lips, rapid or weak pulse, nausea or vomiting, dull and sunken eyes, and an unusual thirst. Shock requires medical treatment to be reversed, so all you can do as a first aid provider is to prevent it from getting worse. To treat shock, have the victim lie down with legs elevated 10-12 inches until emergency help arrives. Provide the victim with plenty of fresh air. If the victim is unconscious, vomiting or has severe injury to lower face or jaw, lay the person on his or her side and be sure they are breathing properly and have enough air. Itís very important to keep the victim warm and prevent loss of body heat. Use blankets or extra layers of clothes. Don't give the victim anything to eat or drink because this may cause vomiting. Call 911 or seek medical help immediately. Even if the injury doesn't cause death, the victim can still go into shock and die. Shock usually accompanies severe injury or emotional upset and occurs when trauma causes a lack of oxygen in major organs and tissues. Symptoms can include cold and clammy skin, weakness, irregular breathing, confusion, chills, pale or bluish lips, rapid or weak pulse, nausea or vomiting, dull and sunken eyes, and an unusual thirst. Shock requires medical treatment to be reversed, so all you can do as a first aid provider is to prevent it from getting worse. To treat shock, have the victim lie down with legs elevated 10-12 inches until emergency help arrives. Provide the victim with plenty of fresh air. If the victim is unconscious, vomiting or has severe injury to lower face or jaw, lay the person on his or her side and be sure they are breathing properly and have enough air. Itís very important to keep the victim warm and prevent loss of body heat. Use blankets or extra layers of clothes. Don't give the victim anything to eat or drink because this may cause vomiting. Call 911 or seek medical help immediately.

11. Copyright „2006 Progressive Business Publications Poisoning Signs: stains on skin or clothes, unusual odors, open containers, convulsions, sweating, confusion, pin-point pupils, difficulty breathing Get victim away from poison as necessary Attempt to identify source Check label or MSDS for instructions For eyes: Flush with water for 15 minutes Gas: Remove victim from area Skin: Remove clothing and flush area with water Notify poison control center and 911 All poisonings are serious, but some poisonings require immediate attention before calling for help. Failure to act may result in death. Tell-tale signs of poisoning include: unusual stains or odors on clothes or skin, unusual odor on breath, drowsiness, stomach pain, vomiting, sweating, trembling or muscle twitches, convulsions, pin-point pupils, confusion, irregular breathing and drug or chemicals containers that are open and/or left out of place. The first thing to do is to get the victim away from the poison then provide treatment appropriate to the form of poisoning. Assess the scene for clues and safety. What was the victim working with? Check labels or Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for first aid information and follow it immediately. Then contact your local Poison Control Center, physician or emergency personnel. Take the poison container or label with you when you call for medical assistance to help you answer questions about the poison. If the poison is a gas, you may need a respirator to protect yourself. After checking the area first for your safety, remove the victim from the area and take them to fresh air. If the poison has come into contact with the skin, remove the clothing from the affected area and flush with water for 10 minutes. Then gently wash the skin area with soap and water and rinse. Later, destroy the contaminated clothing. If the poison is in contact with the eyes, flush the victimís eyes for a minimum of 15 minutes with clean water. Have them blink the eye as much as possible during the flushing. All poisonings are serious, but some poisonings require immediate attention before calling for help. Failure to act may result in death. Tell-tale signs of poisoning include: unusual stains or odors on clothes or skin, unusual odor on breath, drowsiness, stomach pain, vomiting, sweating, trembling or muscle twitches, convulsions, pin-point pupils, confusion, irregular breathing and drug or chemicals containers that are open and/or left out of place. The first thing to do is to get the victim away from the poison then provide treatment appropriate to the form of poisoning. Assess the scene for clues and safety. What was the victim working with? Check labels or Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for first aid information and follow it immediately. Then contact your local Poison Control Center, physician or emergency personnel. Take the poison container or label with you when you call for medical assistance to help you answer questions about the poison. If the poison is a gas, you may need a respirator to protect yourself. After checking the area first for your safety, remove the victim from the area and take them to fresh air. If the poison has come into contact with the skin, remove the clothing from the affected area and flush with water for 10 minutes. Then gently wash the skin area with soap and water and rinse. Later, destroy the contaminated clothing. If the poison is in contact with the eyes, flush the victimís eyes for a minimum of 15 minutes with clean water. Have them blink the eye as much as possible during the flushing.

12. Copyright „2006 Progressive Business Publications Burns Remove clothing If stuck to burn, leave it Hold burned area under running water for 15 minutes Do not apply ointmnets or creams Bandage with a clean, dry cloth Do not pop blisters For severe burns call for medical help There are many different types of burns, including thermal burns, chemical burns or electrical burns. Although each occurs in a different way, treatment is very similar. The first step is to remove any clothing from around the burned area. If the victim's clothing is stuck to the burn, don't try to remove it. Just leave it. The first step is to run cold water over the burn for a minimum of 15 minutes. Do not use ice. If the burn is small enough, keep it completely under water. Flushing the burn takes priority over calling for help. Once youíre done, do not apply ointments or creams. Just cover the burn loosely with a clean, dry cloth or dry gauze. If you donít have any clean material, leave the burn uncovered. Don't offer the burn victim anything to eat or drink. Keep the victim covered with a blanket to maintain normal body temperature until medical help arrives. If blisters form, donít break or pop them. This will affect the rate at which the burn heals. For severe burns, get the victim to a physician or hospital as soon as possible. Have one person call 911 or the local emergency number while another person runs cool water over the burned area. There are many different types of burns, including thermal burns, chemical burns or electrical burns. Although each occurs in a different way, treatment is very similar. The first step is to remove any clothing from around the burned area. If the victim's clothing is stuck to the burn, don't try to remove it. Just leave it. The first step is to run cold water over the burn for a minimum of 15 minutes. Do not use ice. If the burn is small enough, keep it completely under water. Flushing the burn takes priority over calling for help. Once youíre done, do not apply ointments or creams. Just cover the burn loosely with a clean, dry cloth or dry gauze. If you donít have any clean material, leave the burn uncovered. Don't offer the burn victim anything to eat or drink. Keep the victim covered with a blanket to maintain normal body temperature until medical help arrives. If blisters form, donít break or pop them. This will affect the rate at which the burn heals. For severe burns, get the victim to a physician or hospital as soon as possible. Have one person call 911 or the local emergency number while another person runs cool water over the burned area.

13. Copyright „2006 Progressive Business Publications Electric Shock Stay clear until electrical contact is broken Switch off source of electricity if possibe Check to see if Victim is breathing Victim has pulse Keep vicitm lying down Keep victim warm Call for emergency help Electrical burns come as a result of electric shock. If you come across someone you believe has been the victim of a severe electric shock, your first priority is breaking any electrical contact and shutting down power sources. Do this before going to the victim. If a victim is still in contact with the power source, electricity will travel through the victimís body and electrify you when you reach out to touch them. So donít touch the victim until youíve done this. If you canít unplug the appliance or turn off the power, use a piece of wood like a broom handle, dry rope, or dry clothing to separate the victim from the power source. Call for emergency help. Once the victim is clear of the power source, your priority is to check for any airway obstructions and check breathing and circulation. If victim is not breathing, perform rescue breathing. If the victim has no pulse, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if certified or find someone who is certified. Keep the victim lying down. Do not move the victim if there is a suspicion of neck or spine injuries unless absolutely necessary. Cover the victim with a blanket to maintain body heat, keep the victim's head low and get medical attention as soon as possible. Electrical burns come as a result of electric shock. If you come across someone you believe has been the victim of a severe electric shock, your first priority is breaking any electrical contact and shutting down power sources. Do this before going to the victim. If a victim is still in contact with the power source, electricity will travel through the victimís body and electrify you when you reach out to touch them. So donít touch the victim until youíve done this. If you canít unplug the appliance or turn off the power, use a piece of wood like a broom handle, dry rope, or dry clothing to separate the victim from the power source. Call for emergency help. Once the victim is clear of the power source, your priority is to check for any airway obstructions and check breathing and circulation. If victim is not breathing, perform rescue breathing. If the victim has no pulse, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if certified or find someone who is certified. Keep the victim lying down. Do not move the victim if there is a suspicion of neck or spine injuries unless absolutely necessary. Cover the victim with a blanket to maintain body heat, keep the victim's head low and get medical attention as soon as possible.

14. Copyright „2006 Progressive Business Publications Eye Injuries Know where nearest eyewash station or source of running water is located For contact with chemicals: Flush with running water for 15 minutes For cuts or punctures of the eye Bandage the eye lightly Do not remove embedded object See physician immediately Particles in eyes: Lift upper eyelid out toward lower lid Blow to the eye: Cold compress You should always wear the proper eye protection. But when eyes injuries occur, proper first aid and medical attention is critical. Know where your eyewash stations or nearest available sources of running water are located. Eye damage from chemical burns can be very serious. In all cases of eye contact with chemicals, immediately flood the eye with lukewarm water for 15 minutes. Open the eye as wide as possible during the flooding. Be careful not to let runoff water flow into the other eye. Place a gauze pad or cloth over both eyes and secure it with a bandage. Do not apply any ointments. Get to an eye specialist or emergency room immediately and explain the cause of the injury. Also take the chemicalís label or container to the physician with you. For cuts and punctures of the eye or eyelid, bandage the eye lightly, and see a physician at once. Do not wash out the eye with water or try to remove an object stuck in the eye. For particles in the eyes, lift the upper eyelid outward and down over the lower lid. Let tears wash out the speck or particle. If the speck or particle doesnít wash out, keep the eye closed, bandage lightly and see a physician. If someone has received a blow to the eyes, apply a cold compress immediately for 15 minutes and again each hour as needed to reduce pain and swelling. If there is discoloration or blackening of the eye, it could mean internal damage has occurred and you should see a physician. You should always wear the proper eye protection. But when eyes injuries occur, proper first aid and medical attention is critical. Know where your eyewash stations or nearest available sources of running water are located. Eye damage from chemical burns can be very serious. In all cases of eye contact with chemicals, immediately flood the eye with lukewarm water for 15 minutes. Open the eye as wide as possible during the flooding. Be careful not to let runoff water flow into the other eye. Place a gauze pad or cloth over both eyes and secure it with a bandage. Do not apply any ointments. Get to an eye specialist or emergency room immediately and explain the cause of the injury. Also take the chemicalís label or container to the physician with you. For cuts and punctures of the eye or eyelid, bandage the eye lightly, and see a physician at once. Do not wash out the eye with water or try to remove an object stuck in the eye. For particles in the eyes, lift the upper eyelid outward and down over the lower lid. Let tears wash out the speck or particle. If the speck or particle doesnít wash out, keep the eye closed, bandage lightly and see a physician. If someone has received a blow to the eyes, apply a cold compress immediately for 15 minutes and again each hour as needed to reduce pain and swelling. If there is discoloration or blackening of the eye, it could mean internal damage has occurred and you should see a physician.

15. Copyright „2006 Progressive Business Publications Head Injuries Can result in a concussion or brain injuries Symptoms: difficulty speaking, headache, unequal size pupils, pale skin. If brain injury: clear or redish fluid draining from ears, nose or mouth, or paraylsis. Keep victim lying down Apply ice Be sure vicitm is breathing Do not give liquids to drink A typical minor head injury occurs when the victim runs into something and bangs his or her head. A bump usually begins to form, but the size of the bump does not suggest the severity of the injury. A small bump may be serious, and a large bump may mean only a minor injury. The main concern with a head injury is that there may be bleeding inside the skull. This can occur even if the skull is not clearly damaged. The accumulation of blood may eventually put pressure on the brain and cause brain damage. Head injuries are often not serious, but brain injuries are. If the victim has lost consciousness, has loss of memory about the injury, has had a seizure, visual problems, bleeding from eyes, ears or mouth; clear or reddish fluid draining from nose, repeated vomiting, paralysis, irregular breathing or heart rate Ė seek a physician's care immediately. To treat head injuries, apply ice to the bruised areas to minimize the swelling. Do not give the victim anything to drink. Observe the victim carefully. Symptoms of bleeding inside the head usually occur within the first 24 to 72 hours. Any threat of brain damage from a head injury should be checked by a physician. A typical minor head injury occurs when the victim runs into something and bangs his or her head. A bump usually begins to form, but the size of the bump does not suggest the severity of the injury. A small bump may be serious, and a large bump may mean only a minor injury. The main concern with a head injury is that there may be bleeding inside the skull. This can occur even if the skull is not clearly damaged. The accumulation of blood may eventually put pressure on the brain and cause brain damage. Head injuries are often not serious, but brain injuries are. If the victim has lost consciousness, has loss of memory about the injury, has had a seizure, visual problems, bleeding from eyes, ears or mouth; clear or reddish fluid draining from nose, repeated vomiting, paralysis, irregular breathing or heart rate Ė seek a physician's care immediately. To treat head injuries, apply ice to the bruised areas to minimize the swelling. Do not give the victim anything to drink. Observe the victim carefully. Symptoms of bleeding inside the head usually occur within the first 24 to 72 hours. Any threat of brain damage from a head injury should be checked by a physician.

16. Copyright „2006 Progressive Business Publications Heat Exhuastion and Heat Stroke Heat Exhaustion Symptoms: excessive fatigue, dizziness, confusion Move to cool area and give plenty of liquids Heat Stroke Symptoms: flushed skin, lack of perspiration, confusion, rapid pulse, high body temperature Move to cool area Put in cool water, sponge skin or wrap in cool wet clothes, and fan the victim Give plenty of liquids Although they are commonly confused, heat stroke and heat exhaustion are two different conditions. Heat exhaustion can occur anywhere there is poor air circulation, such as around an open furnace or heavy machinery. Simple heat exhaustion can occur due to loss of bodily fluids and salts. The symptoms are usually excessive fatigue, dizziness and disorientation. To treat heat exhaustion, move the victim to a cool spot and encourage drinking of cool water and rest. Heat stroke, on the other hand, is much more serious and can be life threatening. It occurs when the body's sweat glands have shut down. Some symptoms of heat stroke are dry, hot and flushed skin, confusion, lack of perspiration, rapid pulse, and fever. The heat stroke victim will die quickly, so don't wait for medical help to arrive Ė assist immediately. The first thing to do is get the victim out of the heat and into a cooler place. Remove or loosen victimís clothing. Next cool down the victim by immersing them in cool water, sponging them or applying cloth-wrapped cold packs or wet towels. Fan the victim to provide good air circulation until medical help arrives. Place the victim in the shock position, lying on his back, with his feet up. Treat for shock, if necessary. Although they are commonly confused, heat stroke and heat exhaustion are two different conditions. Heat exhaustion can occur anywhere there is poor air circulation, such as around an open furnace or heavy machinery. Simple heat exhaustion can occur due to loss of bodily fluids and salts. The symptoms are usually excessive fatigue, dizziness and disorientation. To treat heat exhaustion, move the victim to a cool spot and encourage drinking of cool water and rest. Heat stroke, on the other hand, is much more serious and can be life threatening. It occurs when the body's sweat glands have shut down. Some symptoms of heat stroke are dry, hot and flushed skin, confusion, lack of perspiration, rapid pulse, and fever. The heat stroke victim will die quickly, so don't wait for medical help to arrive Ė assist immediately. The first thing to do is get the victim out of the heat and into a cooler place. Remove or loosen victimís clothing. Next cool down the victim by immersing them in cool water, sponging them or applying cloth-wrapped cold packs or wet towels. Fan the victim to provide good air circulation until medical help arrives. Place the victim in the shock position, lying on his back, with his feet up. Treat for shock, if necessary.

17. Copyright „2006 Progressive Business Publications Hypothermia Can result in death if not treated Symptoms: uncontrollable shivering, dizziness, slurred speech, slowed pulse Treatment Take victim to sheltered area Raise body temperature slowly Remove clothes and replace with warm dry clothes Wrap victim in blanket Give warm liquids to drink Hypothermia (prolonged exposure to the cold) can be life threatening. Symptoms include lower than normal body temperature, shivering, apathy, disorientation, drowsiness and Ė eventually Ė unconsciousness. Immediately move the victim into a warm indoor area. Get the victim out of any wet clothes and replace with dry clothes. Keep the victim warm by using blankets, sleeping bags or an extra layer of clothing. Have the victim drink a warm, beverage if possible. Seek medical help. Hypothermia (prolonged exposure to the cold) can be life threatening. Symptoms include lower than normal body temperature, shivering, apathy, disorientation, drowsiness and Ė eventually Ė unconsciousness. Immediately move the victim into a warm indoor area. Get the victim out of any wet clothes and replace with dry clothes. Keep the victim warm by using blankets, sleeping bags or an extra layer of clothing. Have the victim drink a warm, beverage if possible. Seek medical help.

18. Copyright „2006 Progressive Business Publications Fractures Simple fracture: does not pierce through skin Immobilize area Apply splint Compound fracture: pierces through the skin Control bleeding Cover injured area Immobilize area Apply splint There are two kinds of fractures: simple and complex. In simple fractures, the bone does not pierce the skin. In complex fractures, the bone has pierced the skin and excessive bleeding may be present. For a simple fracture, begin by stopping any movement of the injured area. Place the injured body part in as natural a position as possible on pillows, jackets, blankets, etc. If the patient must be moved to a medical facility, in order to protect the injured part from further damage, youíll need to apply splints. Find stiff material thatís long enough to extend above and below the joint near the fracture, such as a board, pole or metal rod. Tie them to the part using a bandage or cloth at the break, and at points along the splint above and below the break. Try to pad the splints with clothing or other soft material to prevent skin injury. You should also splint a compound fracture. However, your first priority in that situation is to control the bleeding. Use a pressure bandage to control any bleeding. Be sure to watch for signs of shock. There are two kinds of fractures: simple and complex. In simple fractures, the bone does not pierce the skin. In complex fractures, the bone has pierced the skin and excessive bleeding may be present. For a simple fracture, begin by stopping any movement of the injured area. Place the injured body part in as natural a position as possible on pillows, jackets, blankets, etc. If the patient must be moved to a medical facility, in order to protect the injured part from further damage, youíll need to apply splints. Find stiff material thatís long enough to extend above and below the joint near the fracture, such as a board, pole or metal rod. Tie them to the part using a bandage or cloth at the break, and at points along the splint above and below the break. Try to pad the splints with clothing or other soft material to prevent skin injury. You should also splint a compound fracture. However, your first priority in that situation is to control the bleeding. Use a pressure bandage to control any bleeding. Be sure to watch for signs of shock.

19. Copyright „2006 Progressive Business Publications Moving an Injured Victim Never attempt to move an injured victim Exceptions: situations where victim faces more danger if left in position Move by dragging: Underneath shoulders or by feet By clothes near neck or shoulders After placing on blanket If spinal or back injury is suspected: Drag in direction of spine or Place firm board underneath victim and carry In most cases, it is best not to move an accident victim regardless of the injury because moving a victim can make the injury worse, especially true with spinal cord injuries. The exceptions are cases where the victim is in imminent danger, such as in a fire or cases where an explosion might occur. There are a number of ways to move an injured person. One way is by placing both feet or arms over your shoulders and dragging. It is also possible to pull by the victim's clothing, preferably by the clothing around the neck or shoulder areas. You can also drag the person onto a blanket or large cloth and then drag the blanket. If must move a victim you suspect has a spinal or back injury, keep the midline of the body as straight as possible and pull in a direction that is in a straight line with the victim's spine. You can also attempt to put them on a makeshift stretcher. While trying not to change the victimís position, if possible, place a thick flat board under the victim, then tie victim in place to prevent movement and proceed cautiously. In most cases, it is best not to move an accident victim regardless of the injury because moving a victim can make the injury worse, especially true with spinal cord injuries. The exceptions are cases where the victim is in imminent danger, such as in a fire or cases where an explosion might occur. There are a number of ways to move an injured person. One way is by placing both feet or arms over your shoulders and dragging. It is also possible to pull by the victim's clothing, preferably by the clothing around the neck or shoulder areas. You can also drag the person onto a blanket or large cloth and then drag the blanket. If must move a victim you suspect has a spinal or back injury, keep the midline of the body as straight as possible and pull in a direction that is in a straight line with the victim's spine. You can also attempt to put them on a makeshift stretcher. While trying not to change the victimís position, if possible, place a thick flat board under the victim, then tie victim in place to prevent movement and proceed cautiously.

20. Copyright „2006 Progressive Business Publications Choking If victim is conscious Stand behind victim, grasp hands across abdomen above navel and make fist Make quick upward thrusts until item is dislodged If victim becomes unconscious Lay victim on back Check airway for obstructions and remove Begin rescue breathing If necessary, straddle victim and perform abdominal thrusts If a victim is choking: Stand behind the victim and locate the bottom rib with your hand. Move your hand across the abdomen to the area above the navel then make a fist. Place your other hand over your fist and press into the victim's stomach with a quick upward thrust until the item is dislodged. Repeat as necessary. If the victim becomes unconscious: Lay the victim on his back. Open his mouth to see if you can see the object. If itís visible, use your forefinger to reach deeply into the victim's mouth (along the inside of the cheek) and try to sweep the obstruction out of the victim's throat. If this fails, attempt rescue breathing. If rescue breathing is not working and the obstruction remains in place, sit straddling the victim's thighs and perform abdominal thrusts by pushing onto the victim above the navel below the ribs with the heel of the hand five times from this position. If a victim is choking: Stand behind the victim and locate the bottom rib with your hand. Move your hand across the abdomen to the area above the navel then make a fist. Place your other hand over your fist and press into the victim's stomach with a quick upward thrust until the item is dislodged. Repeat as necessary. If the victim becomes unconscious: Lay the victim on his back. Open his mouth to see if you can see the object. If itís visible, use your forefinger to reach deeply into the victim's mouth (along the inside of the cheek) and try to sweep the obstruction out of the victim's throat. If this fails, attempt rescue breathing. If rescue breathing is not working and the obstruction remains in place, sit straddling the victim's thighs and perform abdominal thrusts by pushing onto the victim above the navel below the ribs with the heel of the hand five times from this position.

21. Copyright „2006 Progressive Business Publications Fainting Prior to losing consciousness: victim complains of lightheadness, weakness, nausea, and has pale and clammy skin If a person begins to feel faint, have them sit down, lean forward and lower head toward knees Treatment: Keep vicitm lying on back with legs elevated Loosen any tight clothing and apply cool damp cloths to face or neck Do not allow victim to rise until you question him At times, a co-worker may faint on the job. Oftentimes, before they do, theyíll complain about feeling suddenly weak or dizzy. When they do, have them sit down, lean forward and lower their head towards their knees. If the victim has fainted, immediately check airways, breathing and pulse. Keep the victim lying on back with legs elevated 10-12 inches. Loosen any tight clothing and apply cool damp cloths to the face or neck. If the victim does not respond, immediately call for emergency medical assistance. When they respond, do not allow a victim to rise until you question them about their condition. At times, a co-worker may faint on the job. Oftentimes, before they do, theyíll complain about feeling suddenly weak or dizzy. When they do, have them sit down, lean forward and lower their head towards their knees. If the victim has fainted, immediately check airways, breathing and pulse. Keep the victim lying on back with legs elevated 10-12 inches. Loosen any tight clothing and apply cool damp cloths to the face or neck. If the victim does not respond, immediately call for emergency medical assistance. When they respond, do not allow a victim to rise until you question them about their condition.

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