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EE 30358 Electromagnetic Fields and Waves II. Instructor: Arpad I. CSURGAY 268 Fitzpatrick Hall [email protected] TA: Timothy VASSEN. Textbook: Magdy F. Iskander Electromagnetic Fields and Waves Chapters 5 to 9: Electromagnetic Waves. Lectures : Tuesday/Thursday 11:00 -12:15

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EE 30358

Electromagnetic Fields and Waves II

TA: Timothy VASSEN

  • Textbook: Magdy F. Iskander

    • Electromagnetic Fields and Waves

    • Chapters 5 to 9: Electromagnetic Waves

Lectures : Tuesday/Thursday 11:00 -12:15

DeBartolo 129

Problems: roughly weekly

Grading: 30% problems; 30% midterm; 40% final

Dr. Arpad I. Csurgay is a Visiting Professor at the EE Department - Center for Nano

Science and Technology, from Pazmany Peter Catholic University,

Budapest, Hungary, (Department of Information Technology)


X-rays

Ultraviolet

Visible light

Infrared IR

Microwave

Radio

Audio

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

Gamma-rays

PHz

THz

GHz

MHz

kHz


SOME IMPORTANT APPLICATIONS OF EM WAVES

RADIO, TELEVISION, TELEPHONY

WIRELESS RADIO, MOBILE PHONES

RADAR (Radio Detecting And Ranging)

RADIO ASTRONOMY

IMAGING, TELESCOPES, MICROSCOPES

MEDICAL IMAGING: X-RAY, CT, NMR, fMRI, etc

OPTICS (Visible, Infrared, UV, Fiber Optics)

MATERIAL STUDIES

HIGH SPEED INTERCONNECTS (MULTI-CHIP TECHNOLOGIES)

SOLAR ENERGY HARVESTING

BIONIC (BI-ology + electrONIC) applications


z

m, q

z(t)

y(t)

y

x(t)

x

Classical Physics

The ‘space–time –body–force’ model

Geometrical ‘space’ and ‘time’set the ‘theater’,

where a‘bodies’are moved by ‘forces’.

Four fundamental notions: space,time, body,force

COLLISION (BODIES) VECTORIAL SUPERPOSITION (FORCES)

‘INTERFERENCE’

Space

and Time

Trajectory:

Force in EM field :

F, N,

E V/m, q As,

v m/s,

B Vs/m2


e

- e

0.1 nm

1 nm

INTERACTION ENERGY 0,18 V

2 nm

INTERACTION ENERGY 14,7 V

Coulomb-coupling on the nanoscale is STRONG.

Dipole – Dipole Interaction

NATURE HAS BEEN HIDING

ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCES FOR

THOUSENDS OF YEARS

MAN DID NOT KNOW THAT LIGHT IS EM WAVE

BODIES FROM OUTSIDE LOOKED LIKE NEUTRAL

EVERYDAY EXPERIENCE: GRAVITY


Proton

Electron

r

GRAVITATIONAL FORCE

ELECTROSTATIC FORCE


MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS

In free space (Vacuum)

Gauss’s Law for Electric Field

Gauss’s Law for Magnetic Field

Faraday’s Law

Ampere’s Law


Example: MOVING CHARGE

Solution of the Maxwell’s Equations for large distances from Q

CHARGE  ELECTRIC FIELD

MOVING CHARGE (CURRENT)  ELECTRIC + MAGNETIC FIELD

ACCELERATING CHARGE (CURRENT) 

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION (EM WAVE)


MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS

In materials (“simple materials”)

The EM field INDUCES additional sources (charges and currents),

which also contribute to the EM field by

conduction ( ),

polarization ( ),

and magnetization ( ).

Gauss’s Law for Electric Field

Gauss’s Law for Magnetic Field

Faraday’s Law

Ampere’s Law


Gauss’s Law for Electric Field

Charge is the “source” of D

Gauss’s Law for Magnetic Field

There is no “source” of B

(vector-lines are “closed”)

Faraday’s Law

“Induced” electric field (emf)

Ampere’s Law


BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

CONTINUITY EQUATION


ENERGY IN EM FIELDS

ENERGY DENSITY

LORENTZ FORCE (Mechanical force)

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY IN EM FIELDS

Power density

emanating

RADIATION

Total power generated

by the sources (batteries,

generators, etc.)

Rate if increase of

electric and magnetic

stored energy

Power dissipated


EM energy stored in Volume V

Dissipation in conductors

Generators produce (+) or dissipate (-) energy/unit time

Power leaves the volume through RADIATION

Poynting vector


H

E

S = E x H

THE EM WAVE CARRY ENERGY AND MOMENTUM

ENERGY AND MOMENTUM ARE CONSERVED !


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