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AN ENGLISH BACCALAUREATE SYSTEM FROM 14+. Ann Hodgson and Ken Spours Institute of Education University of London. WHY AN ENGLISH BAC SYSTEM?. A system solution for system problems

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an english baccalaureate system from 14

AN ENGLISH BACCALAUREATE SYSTEM FROM 14+

Ann Hodgson and Ken Spours

Institute of Education

University of London

why an english bac system
WHY AN ENGLISH BAC SYSTEM?
  • A system solution for system problems
    • Voluntarismand marketisation- lack of a curriculum framework and entitlement from 14+; institutional variation; lack of recognition from end-users
    • Divided and inequitable system - low status and fragmented vocational education; marginalised work-based route and negative effects of performance tables
    • New and persistent barriers – i.e. GCSE: 50% feel a failure and relative inaccessibility of advanced level system
    • Lack of breadth - over-emphasis on examinations rather than quality of learning; C.2000: limited breadth, learner instrumentalism and displacement of wider activities
    • Complexity and instability - variability of educational standards; instability of the awarding system and lack of transparency for learners and end-users
principle the end of voluntarism and division
PRINCIPLE: THE END OF VOLUNTARISM AND DIVISION
  • A unified system to provide for all learners - not just one Bac for academic advanced level
    • Embraces general, vocational and occupationally specific learning
    • Inclusive ladder of progression from Entry upwards
    • Increases transparency - a single set of easily recognisable diplomas at each level
  • A curriculum framework for holistic programmes of study
    • The basis of breadth, choice and specialisation
    • Curriculum space for learning skills and wider experiences
    • Reduces assessment burden
  • Focus for institutional and local collaboration
origins of the bac debate
ORIGINS OF THE BAC DEBATE
  • Debates start with A British Baccalaureate (IPPR 1990)
  • Three related approaches emerged through the decade:
    • Track-based - qualification to broaden academic study at advanced level (e.g. IB)
    • Framework - modular qualifications recognised by overarching certification (e.g. Welsh Bac; AoC Diploma)
    • Unified - new award (the Bac) to include and recognise all types of learning from 14+ (e.g. English Bac)
  • These three approaches approximate to three inter-related reform models in current debates
three reform models prescriptive grouped baccalaureate
THREE REFORM MODELS:PRESCRIPTIVE & GROUPED BACCALAUREATE
  • Prioritises standards and breadth over inclusion via high degree of prescription
  • Structured via subjects and domains with a core of learning to provide value added
  • Uses IB as a model, comprises components within a whole package rather than using current qualifications
  • Tends to be school-based; at advanced level and focused predominantly on academic learning
  • Main challenge is inclusion in both level and scope
three reform models open system with overarching certification
THREE REFORM MODELS:OPEN SYSTEM WITHOVERARCHING CERTIFICATION
  • Prioritises flexibility, choice and inclusion over standards by more ‘open model’
  • Structured by existing qualifications in the form of modules and credits with an overarching certificate wrapper of low volume
  • Key skills and wider activities provide value added
  • Tends to be FE inspired and includes all levels and types of learning
  • Major challenge will be recognition by end-users because still based on voluntarism
three reform models combined and unified english bac system
THREE REFORM MODELS:COMBINED AND UNIFIED:ENGLISH BAC SYSTEM
  • Balances inclusion and standards, compulsion and choice by combining features of prescriptive and open approaches
  • Structured via a core of common learning and main studies within a prescribed volume of learning
  • A new diploma award structure using re-engineered qualifications, newly-designed components, modules and credits
  • Value added located in the Core; volume of study and multi-level requirements
  • The only system - all levels and all types of learning
  • Main challenge is complexity and compromise
a continuum containing three models
A CONTINUUM CONTAINING THREE MODELS

OPEN

COMBINED

PRESCRIPTIVE

  • Different models lie at various points on the continuum
  • The core/specialisation model combines features of

open and prescriptive models

  • The Welsh Bac and AoC Diploma models lie at the

more open end; the IB and related models lie towards

the prescriptive end and the ‘combined’ English Bac

System lies in between (with some aspects more open

and others more prescriptive)

a unified english baccalaureate system from 14
A UNIFIED ENGLISH BACCALAUREATE SYSTEMFROM 14+

Advanced

Specialist

(Vocational)

Advanced

Specialist

(Occupational)

Advanced

Specialist

(Domain)

Adv.2

Advanced

(General)

Advanced

Diploma

(The Bac)

Adv.1

Intermediate

General

Int.

Intermediate

Diploma

Intermediate

(Domain)

Intermediate

(Vocational)

Intermediate

(Occupational)

(pre & post 16)

Foundation

(Vocational)

Foundation

Diploma

Foundation General

Found.

(pre & post 16)

Entry Level Provision

Entry

Entry

Diploma

(pre & post 16)

english bac system explained
ENGLISH BAC SYSTEM EXPLAINED
  • Unified system with prescribed volume, common core, common award outcome and common credit system
  • Five level progression system leading to diplomas at four levels – not tied to age
  • Four types of diploma - one general and three specialist
    • General - open range of subjects
    • Specialist (Domain) - group of two or more subjects in a particular domain (e.g. sciences)
    • Specialist (Vocational) - study in a broad vocational area (e.g. Business)
    • Specialist (Occupational) - specialising in an occupationally specific area and probably in the workplace (e.g. Plumbing)
  • Specialist diplomas are only available post-16
  • There are different personalrouteways through the unified structure
the common core
THE COMMON CORE
  • Central feature of all diplomas at all levels and credit bearing
  • Aims to provide ‘space’ for the development of broad skills; innovative teaching and learning and responsiveness to new curriculum demands
  • Three main components - personal research focus; underpinning skills, knowledge and guidance (e.g. Critical Thinking) and recognition of wider activities
  • Challenges at advanced level include - making it relevant to different types of diplomas; being well-taught/supported and manageable; valued by learners and recognised by HE and employers
general bac model first year
GENERAL BAC MODEL (FIRST YEAR)
  • REQUIREMENTS
  • Customised Core (4-5 units)
  • 4 A1s (2-unit blocks)
  • 3 A2s (3-unit blocks)
  • Intermediate Level -
  • English/Com; Maths/AoN;
  • ICT; MFL

Subject 1S

Subject 2

Subject 1

Guidance

Personalised

Research Study

Wider

Activities

Critical Thinking or Theory of knowledge or People, Organisations,

or system thinking

Subject 4

Subject 3

advanced general diploma explained
ADVANCED GENERAL DIPLOMA EXPLAINED
  • Aims for breadth, flexibility and choice
  • Enhanced/modified C.2000 model -high volume C2000+, four subjects in first year and three in second year + Core
  • Promotes different types of breadth – more subjects, learning skills and wider activities
  • Multi-level (requires achievement at both advanced and intermediate levels)
  • Smaller blocks in first year and less assessment than C.2000 approach
specialist bac vocational

Subject 1S

Vocational courses

Guidance

Wider

Activities

Critical Thinking or Theory of knowledge or People, Organisations,

system thinking

Experience of the workplace

SPECIALIST BAC (VOCATIONAL)
  • REQUIREMENTS
  • Core
  • Range of specialist vocational
  • courses
  • Experience of the workplace
  • Intermediate Level -
  • English/Com; Maths/AoN;
  • ICT; MFL

PRS

specialist advanced bacs explained
SPECIALIST ADVANCED BACS EXPLAINED
  • Builds on a strength of English PCE - specialisation
  • Aims to promote an improved ‘holistic specialisation’
  • Three different types - academic domain; vocational area and occupational specialisation
  • Type of Bac - more grouped than open
  • Specialisation balanced by a broad and education and skills-based Core
intermediate and foundation general diplomas pre and post 16

Subject 1S

MFL

Science

Arts/

Languages

Domain

Science/

Tech.

Domain

Wider

Activities

Learning & key skills Inc. ICT

Personal Challenge

Guidance

Maths/

AoN

Humanities

Domain

English/

Comm

INTERMEDIATE AND FOUNDATION GENERAL DIPLOMAS (PRE AND POST-16)
  • REQUIREMENTS - PRE-16
  • Core
  • English/CNS; Maths/AoN; Science at level of Diploma
  • MFL (at least level below)
  • Three further subjects chosen from two out the three domains
intermediate and foundation general diplomas explained
INTERMEDIATE AND FOUNDATION GENERAL DIPLOMAS EXPLAINED
  • Aim to provide progression, breadth of study and experience, a more practical curriculum, fewer subjects, less external assessment; more skill development and keeping options open
  • Based on three-dimensional model - compulsory courses; domains and the Core
  • Applied learning available in all three dimensions
  • Core allows high degree of personal choice
  • Learners work towards either Foundation or Intermediate Diplomas pre and post-16 (post-16 variant will be a minority routeway)
intermediate and foundation specialist diplomas post 16
INTERMEDIATE AND FOUNDATION SPECIALIST DIPLOMAS (POST 16)

Subject 1S

  • REQUIREMENTS
  • Core - vocationalised
  • English/CNS course
  • Maths/AoN course
  • MFL/internat course (level below)
  • ICT
  • Vocational specialist
  • courses

English/CNS

Maths/AoN

Guidance

Vocational

specialist

courses

PRS

MFL or

international

studies

Wider

Activities

Learning and key skills

ICT

foundation and intermediate specialist diplomas explained
FOUNDATION AND INTERMEDIATE SPECIALIST DIPLOMAS EXPLAINED
  • Available post-16 only
  • Provides more specialist focus + key skills and learning support
  • Core also provides an additional dimension
  • For learners taking General Foundation Dips pre-16, the specialist Int. Dips provide new learning focus
  • BTEC First Diplomas as an exemplar model
entry level diplomas
ENTRY LEVEL DIPLOMAS
  • First rung on the ladder – available in pre- and post-16 variants
  • Most learners pass through Entry Level in compulsory education and some will study for the Entry Diploma from 14
  • Emphasis on basic skills, life-skills and more applied and project-based education
  • Highly customised learner programmes with Core
  • Provide vertical and horizontal progression
assessment
ASSESSMENT
  • English Bac System aims to reduce assessment burden, enhance assessment for learning and increase the role of professional judgement
    • Reduction in number of assessed subjects and units (e.g. in A1s and A2s)
    • Less external assessment and more internal assessment
    • Abandonment of NVQ assessment methodology in most aspects of the Bac system - indicative rather than coverage
    • Specialist study replaces some course-work
    • Vivas as one method of proving learner ownership
    • Trilogy of assessment – internal assessment + moderation of specialist study + viva; external assessment + institutional grade
    • Reduced role of league tables and increased role of inspection
routeways through a unified system
ROUTEWAYS THROUGH A UNIFIED SYSTEM
  • Everyone passes through Entry and Foundation Levels as part of compulsory secondary education but some learners will remain at this level in post-compulsory education
  • All types of diplomas are designed to facilitate progression to further study or employment
  • The Core is designed to have five functions - broadening; progression-related; motivational; pedagogical and responsiveness to future demands
  • The personalrouteway is the individual learner’s use of the unified award structure for personal progression 14-19 (both vertical and horizontal)
  • The personal routeway in a unified structure thus represents a balance between choice, flexibility, coherence and clarity of outcome
main routeways 1
MAIN ROUTEWAYS (1)
  • Examples of main routes with typical durations of study
    • Routeway A: Intermediate General - Advanced General (4 years) - probably the largest routeway
    • Routeway B: Intermediate General - Advanced Domain (4 years) - new routeway which allows domain specialisation at advanced level
    • Routeway C: Intermediate General - Advanced Vocational (4 years) - routeway which allows degree of vocational specialisation at advanced level
    • Routeway D: Intermediate General - Advanced Occupational (4 years) - for those who want to earn and learn in MAs
main routeways 2
MAIN ROUTEWAYS (2)
  • Examples of main routes with typical durations of study
    • Routeway E: Foundation General - Intermediate General - Advanced General or Advanced Specialist (5 years) - for slower learners who want to keep their options open
    • Routeway F: Foundation General - Intermediate Specialist - Advanced Specialist (5 years) - slower learners who want to specialise post-16
    • Routeway G: Foundation or Intermediate General - Foundation or Intermediate Specialist (3 years) - slower learners who are not able or willing to move a level but want to specialise to be motivated to continue learning (taking credit to another destination)
    • Routeway H: Entry Level - Foundation Specialist (3 years) - Learners with some learning difficulties who use specialisation as a way of maintaining motivation and preparing for labour market or movement into further training (taking credit to another destination)
    • Routeway I: Lateral progression across Entry Level (3 years minimum) - learners with SEN who aim to achieve the Entry Diploma
key milestones towards an english bac system
KEY MILESTONES TOWARDS AN ENGLISH BAC SYSTEM
  • Visionary, long-term, consensual and inclusive approach to reform:
    • An extended period of open and inclusive debate about the end-goal of reform and steps and stages towards it
    • A commitment by Government to an English Bac System in the next election Manifesto
    • Designing the architecture of the new system involving all stakeholders
    • Establishing a programme of piloting of various aspects of the system
    • Ensuring key shaping factors (e.g. performance tables) support the new system
    • Creating the process of formative evaluation
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