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Soil sustainable use in moldova

Soil sustainable use in Moldova

Mihail Rurac,

Acociate Professor, State Agrarian University of Moldova

http://www.uasm.md/en/

Infinity Erasmus Mundus Postdoctorate at The Departament of Soil Sciences and Agrochemistry

[email protected],

GSM: +372 56 17 3874


Content

Content:

About Moldova

Natural conditions and soils

Soil use in Agriculture

Current state of soils in Moldova

Next step towards more sustainable use of soils






Geographical position of moldova

MOLDOVA

Geographical position of Moldova


Republic of moldova geo economically advantageous position
Republic of Moldova: geo economically advantageous position


Republic of moldova overview preliminary data approx
Republic of Moldova: overview(preliminary data, approx.)







The world famous milestii mici largest wine cellar by number of bottles

The cellars of the MilestiiMici wine-making plant in Moldova contain over 1.5 million bottles of wine. The bottles are stored in 55 km (34 miles) of underground galleries excavated in lime mining operations. The first bottle was stored in 1968, and new vintages are added each year.

THE WORLD FAMOUSMilestiiMiciLargest wine cellar by number of bottles


Cricova – Moldova’s underground treasureIn just 15 km North of Chisinau, lays a of subterran city, a labyrinth of avenues and streets, named after wine types. Cricova’s museum stores the country’s national collectional of 1.3 millions of bottles, the oldest one beeing from 1902.



Climate

Climate

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  • The North agricultural region proximity to the comprises predominant heights 100-240m and slopes 5-8% and also in the steppe, undulating Balti flat with predominant heights 140-200m, on the flooded-steppe terraces of the left bank of Prut and forest-steppe Podolski dissected plain with slopes 2-5%.

  • Soil forming rack is neogen and blanket loam, clay, loess-like loam and in some places limestone. Natural vegetation is represented by oak and hornbean forests, meadow and sod steppe-grasses. Forest are 9%.

  • The climate of North agricultural region is warm and well humid.


  • The s proximity to the um of positive air temperature in vegetative period is about 2750…30900C. In some years it is 1900-22000C, but probability of such sum not exceed 5% years. An average air temperature of the hotest month (july) is 19,5-21,00C, coldest month (january) is – 4,5…50C. An average duration of growing season is 165-175 days.

  • Frostless period in the air is 165-180 days, on the soil surface is 150-160 days.

  • An average date of the last spring frost refers to 20-25 of april and the frist fall frast – 5-15 October.


Annual precipitation is 550-630 mm, in vegetative period precipitation not exceed 285-350mm.

Hydrothermic index is 1,2-1,0. Index of annual air moistening is 0,65-0,8 (correlation between precipitataion aevaporation). Well-enough moistening during vegetative period is observed-40% year, unimportant drouughty conditions- 40-50% year and drz period withhard conditions for growth and development of agricultural crop (drought) – 10% years.


Central agricultural region, precipitation not exceed 285-350mm.occupies Central Moldavian forest and forest-steppe elevation Codri with predominant heights 170-180m, maximum height 429,5m. Dominant slopes ranging between 8 and 30 percent.

Soil forming rock is plogen loamy sand, loam, clay, and their deluvium, eluvium. natural vegetation is beech and oak-hornbeam forests. Forests are 18%.

The climate of region is warmand medium humid. Sum of positiv air temperature in vegetative period is about 1900-32000C.

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In some years it is 2200-24500C, but probability of such sum not exceed 5% years.

An average duration of growing season is 175-185 days. frostless period lasts in average 175-190 days. An average date of the last spring frost refers to 15 - 20 April and the first fall frost – 10-15 October. An average air temperature of the hottest month (July) is 21,0 … 22,00C, coldest month (January) – 3,5…4,50C.

.


. not exceed 5% years.

Annual precipitation is 500-600mm, in vegetative period 265-315mm.

Hydro thermic index is about 1,1-0,8. Coefficient of moistening is 0,6-0,8. Well – enough moistening during vegetative period is observed 20% years, drought – 10-20% years.


South agricultural region comprises terrain not exceed 5% years.of South Moldavian hilly, undulate, dissected steppe flat with predominant height – Tigetcheskaya forest-steppe elevation - 300m. Soil forming rock is represented by Neogene loam, clay and loess-like loam. Natural vegetation is sod steppe-grasses, and oak forests with pubescent oak and in the South of country-needlegrass steppe. Forests are only 7%. The climate of this region is warmest and baldy humid.


  • Sum of positive air temperature of vegetative periodis about 3200-34000C. In some years itis 2300-26000C or 3450-37500C, but probability of such sum is no mare than 5% years. An average duration of grawing season is 180-190 days. Frostless period lasts 175-195 days. An average date of last spring frast is 10-20 of april and the first fall frost 15-20 of October.

  • An average air temperature of the hotest month (July) is 21,5 …22,00C, coldest month (january) –3,0…-3,50C. Annual precipitation is 450-550mm, in vegetative period 235-275mm.



Signature of Teacher moistening is 0,5-0,6. Well-enough moistening during vegetative period is observed 5% years, unimportant droughty conditions – 60-70%, drought – 30-40% years.


Signature of Teacher moistening is 0,5-0,6. Well-enough moistening during vegetative period is observed 5% years, unimportant droughty conditions – 60-70%, drought – 30-40% years.


Soils of moldova

  • Chernozems moistening is 0,5-0,6. Well-enough moistening during vegetative period is observed 5% years, unimportant droughty conditions – 60-70%, drought – 30-40% years.are reprezented by following types: podzolized (Chernozems Chernic – CHch); leached (Chernozems Luvic – CHcv); typical – (Chernozems chernic – CHch); ordinary (CHch); Calcic (Chernozems Calcic – Chcc).

Soils of Moldova

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Podzolized chernozems

Podzolized chernozems


Podzolized chernozems1

Podzolized chernozems


Leached chernozems

Leached chernozems


Typical chernozems

occupy were formed under forests, consisting of oak and mixed fodder plants and refer to heights 220-240m in the North region and 200-260m in the 280 thousandhaor 8,3% oftotalarea. TheyaremainlylocatedintheNorthforest-steppepartofMoldova (absoluteHeights 200-180m) meetalsointhecentralregion (160-220m)

Thethicknessofsoilexerichedwithhumusismorethan 1m

Typicalchernozemswereadopted as a standerdoffertility, appraisalpoint 100

Typicalchernozems


Ordinary chernozems

ocuupy were formed under forests, consisting of oak and mixed fodder plants and refer to heights 220-240m in the North region and 200-260m in the 634 thousand ha or 18,8% of total area. Spread in the South dry steppe, also meet in the Central and North of Republic. They were formed on the loess-like rosk at the heights of 135-150m. Organic carbon content is 2,3%. Soil sarption complex is saturated with exchangableCa and Mg, calcium carbonate is observed under ploughing harizon. Appraisal point 82.

Ordinarychernozems


Calcic chernozems

occupy were formed under forests, consisting of oak and mixed fodder plants and refer to heights 220-240m in the North region and 200-260m in the 654 thousand ha or 19,4% of total area. They occur on the flat ground and slopes in the South of Moldova and also river absolute heights 40-180m and were formed on the – like loam, mare rare light clays under composed of different fonddersteppegrasses

Appraisal point 71. These soils are particularly favourable for vineyarols.

Calcicchernozems


Soil use in Agriculture were formed under forests, consisting of oak and mixed fodder plants and refer to heights 220-240m in the North region and 200-260m in the


Evolution of land categories diuring 1812 2014
Evolution of land categories diuring were formed under forests, consisting of oak and mixed fodder plants and refer to heights 220-240m in the North region and 200-260m in the 1812 - 2014


Land owners
Land owners were formed under forests, consisting of oak and mixed fodder plants and refer to heights 220-240m in the North region and 200-260m in the


Situation analysis agricultural yield
Situation Analysis were formed under forests, consisting of oak and mixed fodder plants and refer to heights 220-240m in the North region and 200-260m in the Agricultural Yield

Table 2. Average yield by main agricultural crops (quintals)

Source: Statistical Yearbooks 1970-2004

UNDP/UNICEF Joint Programme

Support to Strategic Policy Formulation, Monitoring and Evaluation in the Republic of Moldova


Recommended structure of crops for R. Moldova were formed under forests, consisting of oak and mixed fodder plants and refer to heights 220-240m in the North region and 200-260m in the


Arable land on the slope
Arable land on the slope, % were formed under forests, consisting of oak and mixed fodder plants and refer to heights 220-240m in the North region and 200-260m in the

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1 were formed under forests, consisting of oak and mixed fodder plants and refer to heights 220-240m in the North region and 200-260m in the . Spring forage crop

2. Winter wheat

3. Sugar beat

4. Corn, tabacco

5. Corn for silage, peas

6. Winter wheat or Barly

7. Sugar beat

8. Corn

9. Alfalfa


Capacity of the crops to protect soil were formed under forests, consisting of oak and mixed fodder plants and refer to heights 220-240m in the North region and 200-260m in the


Optimal ratio of different crops on slops were formed under forests, consisting of oak and mixed fodder plants and refer to heights 220-240m in the North region and 200-260m in the


Lets look at sugar beet
Lets look at sugar beet were formed under forests, consisting of oak and mixed fodder plants and refer to heights 220-240m in the North region and 200-260m in the

Summer

Summer or fall


Seed bed prepatation
Seed bed were formed under forests, consisting of oak and mixed fodder plants and refer to heights 220-240m in the North region and 200-260m in the prepatation

Spring

Spring


During vegetation
During vegetation were formed under forests, consisting of oak and mixed fodder plants and refer to heights 220-240m in the North region and 200-260m in the

Cultivation

Chemicals spray


During vegetation1
During vegetation were formed under forests, consisting of oak and mixed fodder plants and refer to heights 220-240m in the North region and 200-260m in the

Chemicals spray


Harvest
Harvest were formed under forests, consisting of oak and mixed fodder plants and refer to heights 220-240m in the North region and 200-260m in the

fall

fall


Curent state of soils
Curent state of soils were formed under forests, consisting of oak and mixed fodder plants and refer to heights 220-240m in the North region and 200-260m in the

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Main threats to soil resources were formed under forests, consisting of oak and mixed fodder plants and refer to heights 220-240m in the North region and 200-260m in the

Erosion

Organic matter

Compaction

Decline in

biodiversity

Floods and landslides

Contamination local and diffuse

Salinization

Sealing

EU Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection


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Soil erosion
Soil wind, primarily due to inappropriate land management, deforestation, overgrazing, forest fires and construction activitieserosion


Water erosion

  • Main factor of degradation wind, primarily due to inappropriate land management, deforestation, overgrazing, forest fires and construction activities

  • In 1965 – 284 000 ha

  • Present - 878 000 ha

  • Every year by 7100 ha increase

Water Erosion –


Erosion

Decrease of productivity: wind, primarily due to inappropriate land management, deforestation, overgrazing, forest fires and construction activities

- Slightly eroded – 20%

- Moderately eroded -20-40%

- Heavily eroded- 40-60 %

- Very strongly eroded- 60-80 %

Erosion


Erosion1

Erosion

Aravineis a landform narrower than a canyon and is often the product of stream cutting erosion


Erosion


  • Indirect harm to 24230 ha : Pollution, sedimentation, roads and other communication means deteriorations


Loss of humus
Loss of Humus to 24230 ha



  • For positive balance it is needed 10t /ha of manure or cereals

  • In 1981-1990 it was introduce in soil about 6-7 t/ha of manure, 180-210 kg/ha NPK,

  • 180 -210 th. of ha of perennial grasses

  • In period of 1994-2009 the quantity of manure was reduced by 60 times – 0,1h/ha

  • The area occupied by perennial grasses decreased 4-5 times

  • Balance of humus become strongly negative

  • Minus 1,1 t/ha or 2,4 million tones of humus annually




Soil salinization1

  • 180 cereals th. of ha of meadow soils

  • 308 th. of irgatided land

Soil salinization


Land slides
Land slides cereals

  • Landslides are the gravitational movement of a mass of rock, earth or debris down a slope. Landslides occur when the stability of a slope changes from a stable to an unstable condition. Such changes can be caused by a number of factors, acting together or alone


Land slides1
Land slides cereals

  • 62,6 th. of ha

  • 2,5 th./year


Desertification
Desertification cereals

  • Soil degradation when occurring in the dry areas, is known as desertification which is caused by climatic conditions (droughts, aridity, irregular and intense precipitations regimes) and human activities (deforestations, overgrazing, soil structure deterioration.



Projections
Projections cereals


Volume of preciptations chi in u moldova 1853 2007
Volume of cereals preciptations(Chişinău, Moldova, 1853 - 2007)



  • 1991 4-5 (1946-2007)July more than 150 mm

  • 1993 15 June, 70 – 100 mm

  • 94 – 26 august more than 150 – 270 mm, intensity - 40 mm/h

  • 20057 during 4,5 hours– 60 mm; 18 august during 6 hours140-160 mm

  • 2012 – 21 mai more than 50 mm in less than one hour, 12 July – more then 35 mm during 15-20 min

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Next step towards more sustainable use of soils
Next step (1946-2007) towards more sustainable use of soils

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IFAD it is present in Moldova for over 13 years, knowing needs and working closely with Government of Moldova, has design and implemented measures to reduce the impact of climate change on agriculture.

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Conservation agriculture is an alternative to both conventional and organic farming with application of modern technologies to improve the production and simultaneously protecting land resources, reducing production costs and making the agriculture production less stressed to the climate change.

Conservation agriculture – a feasible method for facing climate change effect

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Pillar compactionII: Mulching

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III compactionpilar Crop rotation and crop diversification I

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Thank you very much
Thank you very much!! compaction

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