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On-orbit Cross-calibration of AM Satellite Remote Sensing Instruments Using the Moon. International Workshop on Radiometric & Geometric Calibration Grand Casino Gulfport Hotel Gulfport, MS 39501 December 4, 2003 Jim Butler NASA’s GSFC Code 924 Laser Remote Sensing Branch

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On orbit cross calibration of am satellite remote sensing instruments using the moon l.jpg

On-orbit Cross-calibration of AM Satellite Remote Sensing Instruments Using the Moon

International Workshop on Radiometric & Geometric Calibration

Grand Casino Gulfport Hotel

Gulfport, MS 39501

December 4, 2003

Jim Butler

NASA’s GSFC

Code 924

Laser Remote Sensing Branch

Greenbelt, MD 20771

Phone: 301-614-5942

Fax: 301-614-6744

E-mail: [email protected]


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  • Acknowlegements Instruments Using the Moon

    • Tom Stone-USGS Flagstaff

    • Hugh Kieffer-USGS Flagstaff (emeritus)

    • Bob Barnes-SAIC

    • Bob Kozon-NASA’s GSFC Mission Ops and his entire team

    • Carol Johnson, Steve Brown, Ted Early-NIST

    • Stu Biggar, Kurt Thome-U of Arizona


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Advantages: Instruments Using the Moon

+Appropriate radiance range for Earth-viewing instruments

+Photometric properties are virtually invariant (<10-8/yr)

+Spectrally bland (from returned Apollo samples)

+Accessible to spacecraft regardless of orbit

+Useful as a common transfer source between spacecraft

Disadvantages

-Non-uniform reflectance and complex photometric behavior

-Satellite instrument lunar views may require a spacecraft attitude maneuver

•MISR, ASTER, ALI, Hyperion, SeaWiFS, & MODIS (Earth view port) on 4/14/03

•MODIS (Space view port) 8 to 12 times a year w/ no maneuver

The Moon as an On-orbit Calibration TargetThe Moon has advantages (+) and disadvantages (-) when used as a satellite instrument calibration target.

The Moon is equivalent to a 6 km target from a 705 km orbit


On orbit lunar viewing by am constellation instruments on april 14 2003 l.jpg
On-orbit Lunar Viewing by AM Constellation Instruments on April 14, 2003

AM Constellation Spacecraft & Instruments


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i April 14, 2003

h

g

f

e

d

c

b

a


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On-orbit Lunar Viewing by AM Constellation Instruments on April 14, 2003

  • Instrument Lunar Viewing Times (UT)

    1. ALI MS/Pan 1 21:39:47

    2. ALI MS/Pan 2 21:44:34

    3. ALI MS/Pan 3 21:49:19

    4. Hyperion 21:54:31

    5. MISR Df camera 22:01:38

    6. MISR Cf camera 22:02:33

    7. MISR Bf camera 22:04:05

    8. MISR Af camera 22:06:23

    9. MODIS 22:09:24

    10. MISR An camera 22:09:34

    11. ASTER SWIR 22:09:34

    12. ASTER VNIR-nadir 22:09:34

    13. MISR Aa camera 22:12:46

    14. ASTER VNIR-aft 22:13:22

    15. MISR Ba camera 22:15:04

    16. MISR Ca camera 22:16:37

    17. MISR Da camera 22:17:33

    18. SeaWiFS 22:34:14


Eo 1 lunar maneuver l.jpg

X April 14, 2003spacecraft

End

Start

Hyperion 1

MS/PAN3

MS/PAN2

MS/PAN1

1.26°

41.5°

Pitch

Roll

0.75°

Yspacecraft

EO-1 Lunar Maneuver


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ASTER 560nm Band April 14, 2003

MODIS 645.5nm Band

MISR 672nm Band


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Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) and the Lunar Irradiance Model

  • Goal: provide on-orbit stable and accurate radiometric calibration at solar reflectance wavelengths using the Moon

  • Two 20 cm, 1m focal length Richey-Chretien telescope systems

    • VNIR:

      • 512 square Si-CCD

      • 23 filters

    • SWIR:

      • 256 sq. HgCdTe

      • Identical to NICMOS on Hubble

      • 9 filters

  • Calibration (absolute accuracy is TBD)

    • 12” sq Spectralon™ panel + 1000W irradiance standard lamp

    • Irradiance of spectrophotometric standard star Vega

    • External 0.4 m dia. collimator + light source calibrated for radiance


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Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) Irradiance Model Model

  • The ROLO Irradiance Model is used to compare on-orbit lunar measurements made by satellite instruments over a wide range of lunar phase and libration.

    • Empirical model based on 5+ years of lunar observations

      • ~85,000 lunar images; >106 star images

      • 32 bands: 23 VNIR, 9 SWIR

      • ±90º lunar phase coverage14 coefficients for each band, 4 are wavelength coupled.

  • Typically 14 coefficients and >1000 data points per band.

  • Smooth wavelength interpolation.

    NOTE: The ROLO lunar image database is unique and extensive. The substantial spatial, phase angle, and wavelength coverage are far beyond any published prior work.


Applications of the rolo lunar irradiance model l.jpg
Applications of the ROLO Lunar Irradiance Model Model

  • The irradiance model has been used to:

    • Determine relative differences in the radiometric scales of satellite instruments ()

    • Determine long-term degradation in the radiometric responsivity of satellite instruments ()

    • Determine band to band radiometric differences in satellite instruments ()

    • Validate the absolute radiometric scales of satellite instruments (accuracy is TBD)


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Determining Relative Radiometric Differences Between Instruments Using the Moon

-Absolute accuracy of ROLO measurements is TBD

-Relative differences between instruments due to

1. Use of different solar irradiance spectra

2. Different approaches in calculating integrated lunar radiances from

instrument lunar images

3. Inherent differences/uncertainties in instrument calibrations


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Determining Relative Radiometric Differences Between Instruments Using the Moon

-Comparison of MODIS instruments at three different lunar

phases.

1. MODIS Terra: 1 through Earth view port +

25 through Space view port (2 angles of inc. on scan mirror).

2. MODIS Aqua: 10 through space view port.


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Determining Relative Radiometric Differences Between Instruments Using the Moon

-Average of all lunar views for each instrument: SeaWiFS (70);

ALI (29); MODIS Terra (26); Hyperion (9); MISR (1)


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Determining Long-term Degradation in the Radiometric Responsivity of Satellite Instruments

SeaWiFS

-Correcting for correlated time jitter (left), a clear asymptotic degradation trend is seen in Bands 7 and 8 (right).

-Degradation information determined through repeated lunar views is used in the generation of SeaWiFS standard data products.


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Determining Long-term Degradation in the Radiometric Responsivity of Satellite Instruments

ALI


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Determining Band-to-band Differences in Satellite Instruments

MODIS Terra & Aqua Band-to-

band Differences

MISR An Camera Band-to-band Differences

-Results from 5 VC expts. + 1 lunar

view (4/14/03)

-Normalized VC and lunar results

show identical band-to-band trends

-Lunar and U of A results show similar

band-to-band trends

-Absolute scale not established in lunar

case


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Summary and Conclusions Instruments

  • On-orbit satellite instrument calibration/characterization using the Moon complements current on-board and vicarious calibration approaches.

    • Effective in long-term trending of degradation of instrument radiometric response

    • Useful in determining relative radiometric differences between instruments

    • Useful in determining band-to-band radiometric differences within instruments

  • Absolute calibration of lunar system needs additional work

    • Analysis of calibration/characterization data obtained in Sept/Oct at Flagstaff

    • Detailed analysis of atmospheric correction codes

  • The lunar irradiance model is currently running at GSFC

  • The Moon (i.e. lunar views + model) is a viable prospect for meeting NPP/NPOESS global change/climate monitoring goals

“All you have to do is look at the Moon.” Hugh Kieffer

“Once you look at the Moon, you may see amazing things.” Hugh Kieffer


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