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Methamphetamine and the Work Place. North Dakota Office of the Attorney General Wayne Stenehjem Attorney General. Clandestine Methamphetamine Lab. Clandestine Methamphetamine Lab. Clandestine Methamphetamine Lab. Clandestine Methamphetamine Lab. Clandestine Methamphetamine Lab.

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Methamphetamine and the Work Place

North Dakota Office of the Attorney General

Wayne Stenehjem

Attorney General
























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History of Methamphetamine

  • 1887: Amphetamine was first synthesized by German chemist L. Edeleano.

  • Amphetamine is used in the medical treatment of Narcolepsy, Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) Obesity control, and for increased energy.


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History of Methamphetamine

  • 1919: Methamphetamine was first synthesized by Japanese chemist A. Ogata.

  • 1965: The United States Congress make Methamphetamine and Amphetamine a Schedule II drug, making it illegal to possess unless a person has an prescription.


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History of Methamphetamine

  • 1960’s: Outlaw Biker Groups control the illegal production of Methamphetamine, utilizing the P2P method of production and marketed it as a small white “Cross-Top” pill.

  • 1960’s: Saw the first testing of the affects of Methamphetamine abuse on the human brain and body.


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History of Methamphetamine

  • 1980’s: There was a trend to move away from the use of the pill form, and market in a powder form.

  • 1980’s: Methamphetamine begins to surpass Cocaine as the stimulant of choice.

  • 1980’s: There is a shift from the P2P method to the Ephedrine-Reduction method of production.


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History of Methamphetamine

  • 1980’s: Control of the illegal production and distribution of Methamphetamine begins to shift from the Outlaw Biker Groups to Mexican Nationals.

  • The Mexican Nationals are able to produce larger quantities of higher quality Methamphetamine, but the Outlaw Biker Groups still control the distribution of Methamphetamine in the United States.


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History of Methamphetamine

  • 1990’s-present: Mexican Nationals have taken over the production and distribution of Methamphetamine in the United States.

  • The illegal production and usage of Methamphetamine, in the Midwest has increased drastically, in the past 10 years.


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North Dakota Statistics

  • Methamphetamine samples analyzed by the State Crime Lab:

    1993: 65

    1994: 85

    1995: 218

    1996: 304

    1997: 450


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North Dakota Statistics

  • Methamphetamine samples analyzed by the State Crime Lab:

    1998: 413

    1999: 494

    2000: 1218

    2001: 1505

    2002: 767 (To Date)


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North Dakota Statistics

  • In 2000, for the first time the North Dakota State Crime Lab analyzed more Methamphetamine samples then Marijuana samples.

  • 1979-80: First investigation and seizure of an Amphetamine lab in North Dakota.

  • 1985: First investigation and seizure of a Methamphetamine lab in North Dakota.


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North Dakota Statistics

  • Methamphetamine Labs Seized:

    1995: 3

    1996: 4

    1997: 1

    1998: 5

    1999: 17


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North Dakota Statistics

  • North Dakota Statistics:

    Methamphetamine Labs Seized:

    2000: 46

    2001: 89

    2002: 135 (To Date)

  • In 2001, approximately 24% of the cases that the NDBCI investigated were Methamphetamine related.



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North Dakota Statistics

  • Of the 89 Methamphetamine labs seized in 2001, 84 (94%) were the Lithium-Reduction (Nazi) Method.

  • Of the 89 Methamphetamine labs seized in 2001, 52 (58%) were located in the urban areas, while 37 (42 %) were found in the rural area.


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Methamphetamine Pharmacology

  • Methods of Ingestion/Onset:

    1) Orally: 20-30 minutes

    2) Inhalation: 1-5 minutes

    3) Injection:

    Intravenously: 5-7 seconds

    Intramuscularly: 1-5 minutes

    Subcutaneous: 1-5 minutes

    4) Smoking: 4-6 seconds

  • The effects of Methamphetamine HCL will last approximately 2-3 hours, and maybe detected in urine 48-72 hours after use.


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Methamphetamine Pharmacology

  • Methamphetamine is extremely powerful and addictive central nervous system stimulant, that also affects the cardiovascular system.

  • Chronic Methamphetamine abuse permanently damages the pleasure center of the brain, so that the only way to experience pleasure would be the continued abuse.



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Methamphetamine Pharmacology

  • Central Nervous System Effects:

    Euphoria

    Increased Alertness

    Increased Energy

    Shakes or Tremors

    Twitching

    Dilated Pupils

    Convulsions

    Seizures


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Methamphetamine Pharmacology

  • Cardiovascular Systems Effects:

    Increased Pulse

    Increased Blood Pressure

    Increased Heart Rate

    Increased Body Temperature

    Increased Respiration

    Cardiac Arrhythmia

    Stroke

    Heart Attack


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Methamphetamine Pharmacology

  • Other Symptoms/Effects:

    Insomnia

    Aggressive/Violent Behavior

    Irritability

    Severe Mood Swings

    Nervous/Anxious Behavior

    Paranoid Schizophrenia/Psychosis


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Methamphetamine Pharmacology

  • Other Symptoms/Effects:

    Other Psychological Problems

    Auditory/Visual Hallucinations

    Clinical Depression

    False Sense of Power/Confidence

    Suppressed Appetite/Weight Loss

    Fainting


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Methamphetamine Pharmacology

  • Other Symptoms/Effects:

    Impotence

    Body Odor/Increased Sweating

    Dry Mouth

    Dry/Itchy Skin

    Acne/Sores

    Pale Skin


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Methamphetamine Pharmacology

  • Other Symptoms/Effects:

    Retraction/Bleeding of Gum Tissue

    Teeth Loss

    Increased Urine Output

    Numbness

    Tingling Sensations

    Constant “Electric Buzz” in Ears


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Methamphetamine Pharmacology

  • Long Term Effects:

    Fatal Kidney/Lung Damage

    Possible Brain Damage

    Clinical Depression

    Recurring Hallucinations

    Violent/Aggressive Behavior

    Weight Loss/Weight Gain


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Methamphetamine Pharmacology

  • Long Term Effects:

    Insomnia

    Permanent Psychological Problems

    Paranoid Schizophrenia/Psychosis

    Lowered Resistance To Illness

    Liver Damage

    Stroke


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Methamphetamine Pharmacology

  • Long Term Effects:

    Hepatitis A, B, & C

    HIV/AIDS (Needle Usage)

    Permanent Damage to the Pleasure Center Of The Brain

    Disorganized Lifestyle/Social Life

    Death


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Methamphetamine Pharmacology

  • Overdose Symptoms:

    Seizures

    Convulsions

    Stroke

    Heart Attack

    Coma

    Death


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Methamphetamine Pharmacology

  • Withdrawal Symptoms:

    Severe Cravings

    Insomnia/Exhaustion

    Intense Restlessness

    Severe Depression

    Mental Confusion

    Extreme Hunger


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Methamphetamine Pharmacology

  • Withdrawal Symptoms:

    Psychotic Reactions

    Anxiety Reactions






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Methamphetamine Manufacturing

  • There is approximately 48 different methods to illegally manufacture Methamphetamine.

  • The “Super Labs” in California and Arizona utilize the Ephedrine-Reduction or Red Phosphorous Method, that produce 100-200 Lbs per “Cook”.

  • Approximately 95% of the labs seized in North Dakota utilize the Lithium-Reduction (“Nazi”) Method.


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Methamphetamine Manufacturing

  • Lithium-Reduction (“Nazi”) Method is the fastest and easiest way to manufacture Methamphetamine.

  • Approximately 70-80% of the Ephedrine used is converted into Methamphetamine utilizing the Lithium-Reduction (“Nazi”) Method, giving the best yield of any method.


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Methamphetamine Manufacturing

  • For each pound of finished Methamphetamine that is produced, the production process generates five (5)-six (6) pounds of waste by- product.

  • This by-product must be handled as toxic waste and be disposed of according to EPA and OSHA standards.


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Methamphetamine Manufacturing

  • Because of these EPA and OSHA guidelines, it becomes extremely costly to clean up clandestine lab sites.

  • Because each clandestine lab site is considered hazardous, it must be handled by and disposed of by certified hazardous material disposal companies.


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Methamphetamine Manufacturing

  • Common household items used in the manufacturing of Methamphetamine:

    Ephedrine/Pseudoephedrine

    Lithium Batteries

    Anhydrous Ammonia

    Rock Salt

    Sulfuric Acid

    Muriatic Acid


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Methamphetamine Manufacturing

  • Common household items used in the manufacturing of Methamphetamine:

    Coleman (Camp Stove) Fuel

    Acetone

    Ether

    Toluene

    Naptha Fuel

    Starting Fluid


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Methamphetamine Manufacturing

  • Common household items used in the manufacturing of Methamphetamine:

    “Heet”

    Kerosene

    Lacquer/Paint Thinner

    Mineral Spirits

    Iodine

    Red Phosphorous


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Methamphetamine Manufacturing

  • Common household items used in the manufacturing of Methamphetamine:

    Aluminum Foil

    Red Devil Lye

    Drano

    Freon

    Pie Plates/Pyrex Cookware

    Mason Jars


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Methamphetamine Manufacturing

  • Common household items used in the manufacturing of Methamphetamine:

    Plastic/Vinyl Tubing

    Funnels

    Coffee Filters

    Sport Bottles

    Spoons

    Pressure Cooker


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Methamphetamine Manufacturing

  • Common household items used in the manufacturing of Methamphetamine:

    Hot Plate

    Ice Tea Jars

    Gasoline Cans

    Propane Tanks

    Coolers

    Duct Tape

    Grinders


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Methamphetamine Manufacturing

  • Where to buy items used in the illegal production of Methamphetamine:

    Large Retail Chains

    Hardware Stores

    Pharmacies

    Convenience Stores

    Truck Stops

    Automotive Stores


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Methamphetamine Manufacturing

  • Where to buy items used in the illegal production of Methamphetamine:

    Chemical Supply Companies

    Farm and Ranch Stores

    Mail Order Companies

    Internet Companies


















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Methamphetamine in the Work Place

Special Agent In

Charge

Michael J. Ness

North Dakota Bureau

of Criminal

Investigation


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