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Leucocytozoon. Presentation by: Sara Meyers Nicole Haight. Leucocytozoon. It is the most important blood protozoa of birds It infects both wild and domestic host birds Over 60 different species of Leucocytozoon are found in various birds Belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa

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leucocytozoon

Leucocytozoon

Presentation by:

Sara Meyers

Nicole Haight

leucocytozoon2
Leucocytozoon
  • It is the most important blood protozoa of birds
  • It infects both wild and domestic host birds
  • Over 60 different species of Leucocytozoon are found in various birds
  • Belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa
  • First seen by Danilewsky in 1884
hosts
Hosts
  • Definitive host: Birds, both domestic and wild
  • Intermediate host/vector : Black flies (family Simuliidae)
  • Notable species:

~L. simondi- ducks, geese and swans

~L. smithi- wild and domistic turkeys

~L. caulleryi- chickens

geographic distribution
Geographic Distribution
  • Cases of Leucocytozoon have been reported all over, except Antarctica, due to the inability for the vector to survive
morphology
Morphology
  • Gametocytes are 12-14 µm long on a fixed smear- up to 22 µm in living cells
  • Macrogametocytes have a red staining nucleus
  • Microgametocytes have a pale staining diffuse nucleus
leucocytozoonosis
Leucocytozoonosis
  • Young birds are more susceptible, older birds are more resistant
  • Infection is seasonal, usually when the weather warms up, this is when vectors are more available
  • Survivors obtain immunity from re-infection, but often suffer chronic, low levels of infection - reservoirs for parasites
  • Sudden onset of infection, spreads quickly
clinical signs
Clinical Signs
  • Often Asymptomatic
  • Anemia
  • Elevated leukocyte count
  • Enlarged and necrotic liver
  • Enlarged spleen - up to 20x its normal size!
  • Fatal if brain or heart tissue are destroyed
  • Emaciation
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Weakness or lameness in one or both legs
treatment
Treatment
  • Control the vector populations
  • No vaccines are currently available for general use
work cited
Work Cited
  • Atkinson, Carter T. “Chapter 24: Hemosporidiosis” Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases: Birds. pp. 193-200. 2008. http://www.nwhc.usgs.gov/publications/field_manual/chapter_24.pdf
  • Janovy, John Jr. and Roberts, Larry S., Gerald D. Schmidt and Larry S. Robert’s Foundations of Parasitology, 7th edition, 2005.
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