Language Games and Other Meaningful Pursuits. Michael L. Littman [email protected] AT&T Labs Research (sort of). Motivation. Software that can understanding language. Question answering Constructing databases from text Natural-language interaction
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Software that can understanding language.
Semantics tricky; word meanings informal.
I don’t really like bananas, but have long respected their humorous potential.
How capture this sentence?
Evaluate by use.
Might need multiple reps. or none at all.
Can we make incremental progress?
Like other games:
Unlike logical games:
Machine performance far from humans’.
Super-human performance common:
Multiple methods of determining relevance:
Successful theme: combine
Module set: coverage ci and precision pi
Let Rjbe the modules selecting response j.
If modules have independent precision:
ThesaurusCut off _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Puns & WordplayMonk’s head? _ _ _ _ _
Arts & Literature“Foundation
Trilogy” author _ _ _ _ _ _
Popular CulturePal of Pooh _ _ _ _ _ _
locally as Chomolungma _ _ _ _ _ _ _
CrosswordeseKind of coal or coat _ _ _
Candidate generation(Keim et al. 99)
Grid filling(Shazeer et al. 99)
Collection of published clues.
Nymph pursuer: SATYR Bugs pursuer: ELMER
Nymph chaser: SATYR Place for an ace: SLEEVE
Highball ingredient: RYEHighball ingredient: ICE
exact: Highball ingredient: RYE
partial: Ace place?: SLEEVE
TransModule: Bugs chaser: ELMER
X chaser Xpursuer
Database modules: Transform clue to DB query.
imdb: Warner of Hollywood: OLAND
wordnet: Fruitless: ARID
Syntactic: Variations of fill-in-the-blanks.
blanks_movies: “Heavens ____!”: ABOVE
Web search: Not used in experimental system.
google: “The Way To Natural Beauty” author, 1980: TIEGS
Word lists: Ignore clue, return all words.
wordList: 10,000 words, perhaps: NOVELETTE
Implicit modules: Probability distributions over all strings of words (e.g., bigram).
segmenter: 1934 Hall and Nordhoff adventure novel: PITCAIRNISLAND
American Crossword Puzzle Tournament
Popular in UK
A clue like this about Japanese religion (6)
Solves this clue:
`japanese religion' is the definition. I am not sure about the `japanese' bit but `Shinto' can be an answer for `religion'.
`a clue like this about' is the subsidiary indication. `a clue‘ becomes `hint', `like this' becomes `so', `about' means one lot of letters goes inside another. `hint' placed inside `so' is `shinto'.
Ads claim 75% on individual clues (perhaps full puzzles).
New York Times puzzles, under 5%.
Blend of IR and NLP.
Race around board, answer questions.
Categories: Geography, Entertainment, History, Literature, Science, Sports
QA via AQUA (Abney et al. 00)
Move selection via MDP (Littman 00)
Used in college applications.
Latent Semantic Indexing (Landauer & Dumais 97)
Pointwise Mutual Information-IR (Turney 01)
Used in college boards (SATs, GREs), and as an intelligence test.
cat : meow ::
Undergraduate project at Princeton
Three groups sig. better than chance.
Individual groups used combinations:
Language games interesting, challenging.
Progress on solving “meaning” problems.
Exciting learning and reasoning to be done
What year was Dartmouth College founded?
Dr. Koop graduated from DartmouthCollege in 1937 and received his M.D. degree from Cornell Medical College in 1941.
Although DartmouthCollege was established in 1769 to educate American Indians and…