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IN SEARCH OF IMPACT AND OUTCOME INDICATORS BASED ON VANCOUVER BIOTECH CLUSTER STUDIES. Monica Salazar & Adam Holbrook CPROST-Simon Fraser University Vancouver, Canada. Outline of presentation. Introduction: need for new indicators

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in search of impact and outcome indicators based on vancouver biotech cluster studies

IN SEARCH OF IMPACT AND OUTCOME INDICATORS BASED ON VANCOUVER BIOTECH CLUSTER STUDIES

Monica Salazar & Adam Holbrook

CPROST-Simon Fraser University

Vancouver, Canada

outline of presentation
Outline of presentation

Introduction: need for new indicators

1. Overview of Vancouver biotech cluster, compared to Montreal and Toronto

2. Role of universities: inputs (public R&D funding) and outputs (patents, scientific publications)

3. Outcomes of R&D funding: commercialization of research, venture capital financing, employment

4. Conclusions

statistical issues
Statistical issues
  • Definition: biotechnology vs life sciences
    • Human health biotech: our focus
  • SMEs vs multinational pharmaceutical companies
    • SMEs mainly, usually called “SBF”
  • Data at provincial or city level
    • Clusters in Canada are limited to a single city or metropolitan area: need of data at city level
  • 2001 is the reference year (as much as possible)
  • Normalization: population, HQP, innovative firms
vancouver distinct characteristics
Vancouver: distinct characteristics
  • Firms recognize the cluster: 59%
  • Networking patterns and interaction between various actors:
    • No vertical integration
    • Neither horizontal integration nor competition among firms
  • Each firm works in specific niche of technologies or products, knowledge coming from local researchers
  • Little local manufacturing, IP producer
  • No competition for local talent
  • Competition for venture capital financing
location location location
Location, location, location
  • Role of location and lifestyle are contributing factors, for instance:
  • Why located in Vancouver: 85% founders from the city, with local connections (labs), (and city is nice)
  • Advantages of the city: cluster existence and facilities -R&D labs, VCC, CROs- associated with it (and city is nice)
  • Factors contributing to growth of the cluster and the firms (most important first):
    • research institutions,
    • supply of workers with particular skills,
    • co-location with other firms in the same industry,
    • educational and training institutions.
2 role of research institutions inputs and outputs
2. Role of research institutions: Inputs and Outputs
  • Biotech industry: research dependent, though
  • universities and public R&D funding are essential.
  • Universities are a necessary but not sufficient condition for cluster emergence.
  • Regions must offer fertile climate and soil to allow seeds from universities to flourish.
slide8

R&D funding for biotech 2001

(CIHR and NSERC biology)

tests to qualify impact of r d funding in cluster creation and development clayman holbrook 2003
Tests to qualify impact of R&D funding in cluster creation and development(Clayman & Holbrook, 2003)
  • R&D intensity: R&D expenditures normalized by HQP
    • “Productivity” indicator in terms of IP (allocation mechanisms)
  • HQP intensity: HQP normalized by labour force
  • R&D intensity and HQP intensity
    • Measure of receptor capacity
patenting activity
Patenting activity
  • Output measure of R&D activity
  • Relationships through patents between companies and researchers, involvement in creation of start-ups (economic relations)
  • Patents as a knowledge spillover measure
  • Number of patents and patent citation real factors of employment growth in biotech companies (Queenton & Niosi)
scientific publications
Scientific publications
  • Publications more or less follows the R&D funding pattern, although …
  • Vancouver bio-scientists publish less per millions of dollars invested (public R&D funding). Why?
  • One possible answer is the closer relationships these researchers have with local firms.
3 outcomes of r d funding
3. Outcomes of R&D funding
  • Commercialization of research: hot topic
    • Licensing (patents)
    • University spin-offs: no official collection of statistics
  • Venture capital raised
  • Human resources: HQP, employment creation/growth, attraction and retention of talent
slide21

Venture Capital and CIHR Funding Per City

2000-01 to 2003-04 (NRC & SECOR, 2004)

$600 000

$500 000

Venture Capital

CIHR Funding

$400 000

Funding ($1000s)

$300 000

$200 000

$100 000

$-

Halifax

Ottawa

Calgary

London

Quebec

Toronto

Montreal

Kingston

Winnipeg

Edmonton

Saskatoon

Vancouver

City

human resources talent employment
Human resources, talent & employment
  • Input (HR, HQP) and outcome (employment)
  • New economic geography of talent
  • Relations between talent and quality of life of places (R. Florida)
    • What is the impact in cluster emergence and development? (firms follow people)
    • Industrial agglomeration: economic, social & cultural factors
  • Vancouver is attracting people: 70% top management have Ph.D. degrees from non-local universities (new data being collected)
  • Bio-scientists play a major role in the location and growth of firms
  • Vancouver firms have a different employment structure
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Identified factors and conditions that contribute to the emergence and success of regional clusters [Vancouver]:
    • Strong university research-oriented [UBC],
    • Funded by public granting agencies [not as important],
    • An entrepreneurial spirit [crucial],
    • Availability of venture capital [critical],
    • A favourable location and environment, so that talented people is attracted to these places [sticky labour market].
  • Research capacity is a necessary but not a sufficient condition.
what do the indicators tell us
What do the indicators tell us?
  • Is Vancouver significantly different in structure, not just size, from Toronto and Montréal?
  • Is Vancouver biotech industry an emergent or a research-based cluster?
  • Vancouver is a R&D-based cluster: local firms invest more on R&D, large pool of bio-scientists, who are highly productive (patents), firms employ more scientists and technicians, and there is little manufacturing.
  • Why do Vancouver perform well in outcomes, but not very good in inputs and outputs? Are we measuring the right issues? Need for new indicators.
is vancouver a viable cluster
Is Vancouver a viable cluster?
  • The model of being an IP producer cluster seems to work.
  • It seems that we do not need a manufacturing facility or pharma company to further develop the cluster.
  • If the largest local company were to relocate or disappear it is unlikely that the cluster would be jeopardized. New ideas, new firms, new people will come.
  • Policy advice: environment is key; more R&D money would be good.
  • Need of longer-term studies.
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