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Immigration in Portugal: recent trends & policy debates. MetroMed, Milan, 11 December 2003 Maria Lucinda Fonseca & Meghann Ormond Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Univ. de Lisboa. An overview of immigration in Portugal.

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immigration in portugal recent trends policy debates

Immigration in Portugal: recent trends & policy debates

MetroMed, Milan, 11 December 2003

Maria Lucinda Fonseca

& Meghann Ormond

Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Univ. de Lisboa

an overview of immigration in portugal
An overview of immigration in Portugal
  • Like other Southern European countries, Portugal has its own strong tradition of emigration; immigration, and social and political responses to it, are comparably recent
  • Portugal only became a migration destination in the 1970s, with the fall of the dictatorship & the independence of its former African colonies (Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde & São Tomé e Príncipe) that also brought back hundreds of thousands of Portuguese who were living in the colonies (retornados)
slide3
Most immigrants & retornados ended up settling in the Lisbon Metro Area, a trend that continues today for most immigrants (except EU citizens & those involved in the agricultural sector), & other urban areas throughout the country (though to a lesser extent)
evolution of legally resident foreign population in portugal by continent of origin 1980 99
Evolution of legally resident foreign population in Portugal, by continent of origin, 1980-99

Source: Fonseca et al., 2002

documented foreigners with a residence permit by main countries of nationality 2000
Documented foreigners with a residence permit, by main countries of nationality, 2000

Source: Fonseca and Esteves, 2002, pp. 258

the new geography of immigration to portugal
The new geography of immigration to Portugal
  • Since the late 1990s, the geography of immigration to Portugal has undergone truly profound changes, from that which has to do with recruitment to the geographic patterns of immigrant settlement in Portugal
numerical change in documented foreigners by main countries of nationality 1997 2001
Numerical change in documented foreigners, by main countries of nationality, 1997-2001

PALOP = Portuguese-speaking African countries

Source: Fonseca, 2003 (forthcoming)

new sending countries
New sending countries
  • Diversification of sending countries
  • Development of a migratory flow from Eastern Europe, namely from:
      • Ukraine
      • Moldova
      • Romania
      • Russia
main nationalities of immigrants with a residence permit in portugal 2001
Main nationalities of immigrants with a residence permit in Portugal, 2001

Total immigrants:223,976 / Top 10 nationalities:175,696 (78.4%)

main nationalities of immigrants with a permanence permit in portugal 2001 2002
Main nationalities of immigrants with a permanence permit in Portugal, 2001 & 2002

Total immigrants: 174,558 / Top 15 nationalities: 163,242 (93.5%)

Source: Fonseca, 2003 (forthcoming)

new settlement patterns in portugal
New settlement patterns in Portugal
  • Despite the fact that the majority resides in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, it is possible to find them throughout the country, spreading themselves out in relationship to the work opportunities available in each region.
slide12

Foreign population with registered work contracts valid for receiving a permanence permit, by region of origin and region (NUT II) of settlement in mainland Portugal (31/12/2001)

*Only the four main nationalities are included (Ukraine, Moldova, Romania and Russia)

** Includes only the 3 main nationalities: Cape Verde, Angola and Guinea-Bissau)

Source: Fonseca and Malheiros, 2003

slide13

Settlement patterns of documented immigrants living in Portugal: Stock (residence permits) and permanence permits, 31/12/2001

Residence permits (Stock), 2001 (%)

Permanence permits, 2001 (%)

Source: Fonseca, 2003 (forthcoming)

2001 distribution of eu citizens living in portugal
2001 Distribution of EU citizens living in Portugal
  • Highest concentrations in the Lisbon Metro Area & Algarve Region
  • Retirees settling in the Algarve from the UK, Germany & the Netherlands
2001 distribution of palop citizens living in portugal
2001 Distribution of PALOP citizens living in Portugal
  • Highest concentration in the Lisbon Metro Area; general settlement in urban areas
  • Arrival began with independence of the former colonies in the 1970s
  • Employed in construction & office/domestic cleaning

PALOP = Portuguese-speaking African countries

2001 distribution of brazilian citizens living in portugal
2001 Distribution of Brazilian citizens living in Portugal
  • Highest concentration in the Lisbon Metro Area
  • Arrival began in the 1970s, with the fall of the dictatorship in PT
  • Employed in construction & the service sector
2001 distribution of non eu european citizens living in portugal
2001 Distribution of (Non-EU) European citizens living in Portugal
  • Highest concentrations in the Lisbon Metro Area & the Algarve Region, but also spread out in rural areas
  • Arrival began in the late 1990s, with the initiation of large-scale construction projects
  • Employed in construction & the agricultural sector
professional level
Professional level

Eastern European immigrants, although they have relatively high educational and professional qualifications, they are employed in low-paying and socially-undervalued jobs, such as construction (men) and industrial cleaning and domestic work (women).

However, there is a significant percentage of Eastern Europeans working in agriculture, especially in the Alentejo, Ribatejo and Oeste Regions, as well as in some types of more work-intensiveindustries in the Northern Region.

slide19

Work contracts made with immigrants holding permanence permits, by employment sector and countries of origin (%)

policy debates
Policy debates
  • The recent massive increase of immigration to Portugal, especially the new migratory wave coming from Eastern Europe, has made waves in the media and has prompted a great national debate about immigration policy.
the terms of the policy debates
The terms of the policy debates
  • The new “immigration law”, published on 25 February 2003, brings some new issues into the immigration debate.
  • The coalition government of Social Democrats and Christian-Democrats that took office in April 2002 has drawn a more complex and elaborate law based on three arguments.
slide22

The promotion of legal immigration according to the country’s labour market needs;

The effective or real integration of immigrants;

The fight against illegal immigration.

management of migration
Management of migration
  • The Government establishes a maximum annual limit for entries of third country nationals onto the national territory, and workers coming to Portugal must hold a labour visa or a residence permit.
  • The term “quota” is not mentioned in the law, but the quota principle is used. A new kind of work visa, for scientific and research activities, was created with the goal of keeping scientists and highly skilled people in Portugal.
slide24
Most of the institutions which opinion is taken into account for the elaboration of the report on labour import are closely related to the labour market rather than to the immigrant field.

Immigrant associations and NGOs are only represented by the ACIME, and in its new and more complex structure, through the Consultative Council for Immigration Issues (COCAI).

slide25
SEF now has more power and less bureaucratic procedures to follow when removing undocumented foreigners from the country.

The reference to the geographical unit “distritos” as hosting areas is also remarkable because there had never been a reference to the settlement regions – until now, immigrants were absolutely free to choose their areas of residence.

integration policy practices partnerships education health
Integration Policy: Practices & PartnershipsEducation & Health

LMA = Lisbon Metropolitan Area

Source: Fonseca et al., 2002

integration policy practices partnerships social assistance culture
Integration Policy: Practices & PartnershipsSocial Assistance & Culture

ACIME = High Commissariat on Immigration & Ethnic Minorities

slide30

Sources

Fonseca, Maria Lucinda(2003, forthcoming) - " Dinâmicas de Integração dos imigrantes: estratégias e protagonistas."

Fonseca, Maria Lucinda; Caldeira, Maria José; Esteves, Alina (2002) - "New Forms of  Migration into the European South: Challenges for Citizenship and Governance. The Portuguese Case", International Journal of Population Geography, vol. 8 (2), pp. 135-152.

Fonseca, Maria Lucinda; Malheiros, Jorge; Esteves, Alina; Caldeira, Maria José (2002) - Immigrants in Lisbon: Routes of integration, Lisbon, Centro de Estudos Geográficos, Estudos para o Planeamento Regional e Urbano, nº 56.

Fonseca, Maria Lucinda; Esteves, Alina (2002) - “Migration and New Religion Townscapes in Lisbon,“ in Fonseca et al., Immigration and Place in Mediterranean Metropolises, Lisbon, Luso-American Foundation, pp. 255-289.

Fonseca, Maria Lucinda; Malheiros, J. M. (2003) - "«Nouvelle» Immigration, Marché du Travail et Competitivité des Régions Portugaises", Géographie, Économie, Societé - Revue Scientifique Internationale, vol. 4, nº 2.

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