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Hybrid Vehicles in Sustainable Motorsport. Stephen Lambert. Overview. Project Introduction Customer Requirements Initial Survey Conjoint Analysis Results Hybrid Architectures Simulation Design Architecture Selection Battery Power Selection. Introduction.

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Presentation Transcript
overview
Overview
  • Project Introduction
  • Customer Requirements
    • Initial Survey
    • Conjoint Analysis
    • Results
  • Hybrid Architectures
    • Simulation Design
    • Architecture Selection
    • Battery Power Selection
introduction
Introduction
  • Motorsport industry worth over £2.9 billion
    • A further £1.7 billion in sponsorship, PR etc
  • Carbon emissions and climate change
    • Industry under pressure to be more green
    • Technical innovation should move to road
  • Hybrid vehicles have the potential to;
    • Reduce vehicle emissions
    • Increase overall vehicle power
uk niche vehicle manufacturers
UK Niche Vehicle Manufacturers
  • Approx 200 UK vehicle manufacturers
    • Same as the rest of the world put together
    • Mostly sports/racing cars
      • High power to weight ratio
  • Small R&D budget
  • Sustainable technologies
    • Misunderstood or viewed with suspicion
    • Formula 1 - KERS
westfield sportscars
Westfield Sportscars
  • Typical small British Manufacturer
    • 3 models
    • Mainly Lotus Seven Type vehicle
    • Used both for road and racing
  • Clubman racing
    • Affordable
    • Custom classes
  • Sell toys, not cars
project vision
Project Vision
  • Design a hybrid powertrain for motorsport
    • Increase the vehicle’s performance
    • Fast development platform
  • Hybrid system should be vehicle independent
    • Hybrid system is independent of vehicle platform
      • Westfield Sportscars initially
    • Hybrid system is independent of IC engine
    • Hybrid should retrofit
  • Play Station Generation
    • Push to pass / F1
initial survey
Initial Survey
  • Administered via internet
    • Simple multiple choice survey
  • Asked to:
    • Rate 14 attributes between 1 and 10
    • Rate 9 optional extras between 1, 9 and DW
      • All attainable through hybrid/electric drivetrain
  • 249 responses over two week period
conjoint analysis
Conjoint Analysis

Ask people what they want, and they say, “the best of everything.”

Ask what they would like to spend; they say, “as little as possible.”

conjoint analysis12
Conjoint Analysis
  • Simple Surveys
    • Fail to capture consumer trade-offs
    • Trade-offs may underlie consumer choice
  • Conjoint Analysis
    • Provides more realistic approach
    • Presents attributes as a product
    • Participant asked to compare and rank products
  • Results used to produce market simulator
    • Predict new product consumer choice
conjoint analysis13
Conjoint Analysis
  • Administered via internet
  • Participants compared two products
    • Twenty times
  • Products consist of;
    • Acceleration Time
    • Price
    • Fuel Economy
    • Drivetrain
    • Engine Power
attribute importance
Attribute Importance

Attribute Importance = (Attribute Utility Rage / Total Attribute Utility Range) x 100%

market simulator
Market Simulator
  • Uses individual results
    • Every participant simulated
  • Compares two products
    • Outputs comparative market share
    • Compare against current product
  • Leads to product price sensitivity
hybrid architectures
Hybrid Architectures
  • Series
  • Parallel
  • Combined (Series-Parallel)
  • Powersplit
series

Fuel

ICE

Gen

ESD

M/G

Wheels

Series
  • 3 energy converters needed
  • Added weight is not going to increase performance
  • Not suitable for use in a racing car
parallel

Fuel

ICE

Wheels

ESD

M/G

M

M

Parallel
  • Energy flow
    • Maximum acceleration
  • Parallel Hybrid
    • Increases available engine torque
  • Post Transmission Parallel
    • Drive through gear changes
parallel cont

M

M

M

Parallel - cont
  • Through the Road Parallel
    • Drive through gear changes
    • Added traction
  • Four Wheel Drive Post Transmission
    • Drive through gear changes
    • Added traction
combined

Fuel

ICE

Gen

Wheels

ESD

M/G

M

M

Combined
  • Energy flow
    • Maximum Acceleration
    • Added complexity in control
  • Post Transmission Combined
    • Increase available engine torque
    • Drive through gear changes
combined cont

M

M

M

M

M

Combined - cont
  • Separate Axle Combined
    • Increase available engine torque
    • Drive through gear changes
    • Added traction
  • Four Wheel Drive Combined
    • Increase available engine torque
    • Drive through gear changes
    • Added traction
powersplit
Powersplit
  • Powersplit hybrid
    • Usually based around planetary gear set
    • Requires major modification of transmission
  • Does not fulfil project requirements
model design
Model Design
  • Models acceleration event (0-60mph)
  • Front engine – rear wheel drive layout
    • Engine and clutch model, with 1st order engine lag, flywheel and clutch inertia
    • Drivetrain, transmission and final drive, connected by flexible shafts, modelled as spring/dampers.
    • Non linear tyre model with longitudinal slip
    • Full body vehicle model with air resistance and angle of inclination
    • Weight transfer between front and rear axles
    • Driver model, designed to achieve maximum acceleration
    • Three electric motors connected to the engine, rear axle and front axle
architecture selection
Architecture Selection
  • Run with same motor specifications
    • 75kW, 240Nm, 59kg, 8000rpm max speed
    • Geared to reach 120mph
  • Acceleration run, 0 - 60mph
  • Simulated in new model Westfield
    • 1.6l Turbo Petrol Engine
    • Launched at Autosport International in January
architecture selection36
Architecture Selection
  • Architectures use 1,2 or three motor sets.
    • Additional motor sets add cost
  • Hybridisation Factor
    • HF = PEM/(PEM+PICE)
  • Benefit Factor
    • BF = (1-(THYBRID/TSTANDARD))/HF
      • (P = Power (kW), T= 0 – 60mph Time (s))
battery pack power
Battery Pack Power
  • Battery weight to be a minimum
    • Vehicle dynamics
  • Energy storage to be a minimum
    • Too much will be detrimental to enjoyment
  • Cost to be low
    • Batteries represent majority of system cost
  • Power should be high
    • How low can the battery pack power be?
conclusions
Conclusions
  • 2 Surveys carried out
    • Shown market potential for hybrid racing car
  • Through the road hybrid architecture
    • Maximum acceleration increased by 30%
    • Give best performance increase for cost
  • Battery pack can be decreased by 30%
    • Only 3.3% increase in acceleration time
thank you
Thank you

Questions

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