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Hybrid Vehicles in Sustainable Motorsport. Stephen Lambert. Overview. Project Introduction Customer Requirements Initial Survey Conjoint Analysis Results Hybrid Architectures Simulation Design Architecture Selection Battery Power Selection. Introduction.

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Hybrid Vehicles in Sustainable Motorsport

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Hybrid vehicles in sustainable motorsport l.jpg

Hybrid Vehicles in Sustainable Motorsport

Stephen Lambert


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Overview

  • Project Introduction

  • Customer Requirements

    • Initial Survey

    • Conjoint Analysis

    • Results

  • Hybrid Architectures

    • Simulation Design

    • Architecture Selection

    • Battery Power Selection


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Introduction

  • Motorsport industry worth over £2.9 billion

    • A further £1.7 billion in sponsorship, PR etc

  • Carbon emissions and climate change

    • Industry under pressure to be more green

    • Technical innovation should move to road

  • Hybrid vehicles have the potential to;

    • Reduce vehicle emissions

    • Increase overall vehicle power


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UK Niche Vehicle Manufacturers

  • Approx 200 UK vehicle manufacturers

    • Same as the rest of the world put together

    • Mostly sports/racing cars

      • High power to weight ratio

  • Small R&D budget

  • Sustainable technologies

    • Misunderstood or viewed with suspicion

    • Formula 1 - KERS


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Westfield Sportscars

  • Typical small British Manufacturer

    • 3 models

    • Mainly Lotus Seven Type vehicle

    • Used both for road and racing

  • Clubman racing

    • Affordable

    • Custom classes

  • Sell toys, not cars


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Project Vision

  • Design a hybrid powertrain for motorsport

    • Increase the vehicle’s performance

    • Fast development platform

  • Hybrid system should be vehicle independent

    • Hybrid system is independent of vehicle platform

      • Westfield Sportscars initially

    • Hybrid system is independent of IC engine

    • Hybrid should retrofit

  • Play Station Generation

    • Push to pass / F1


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Initial Survey

  • Administered via internet

    • Simple multiple choice survey

  • Asked to:

    • Rate 14 attributes between 1 and 10

    • Rate 9 optional extras between 1, 9 and DW

      • All attainable through hybrid/electric drivetrain

  • 249 responses over two week period


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Initial Survey - Attributes - Results


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Initial Survey - Attributes - Results


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Initial Survey - Extras - Results


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Conjoint Analysis

Ask people what they want, and they say, “the best of everything.”

Ask what they would like to spend; they say, “as little as possible.”


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Conjoint Analysis

  • Simple Surveys

    • Fail to capture consumer trade-offs

    • Trade-offs may underlie consumer choice

  • Conjoint Analysis

    • Provides more realistic approach

    • Presents attributes as a product

    • Participant asked to compare and rank products

  • Results used to produce market simulator

    • Predict new product consumer choice


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Conjoint Analysis

  • Administered via internet

  • Participants compared two products

    • Twenty times

  • Products consist of;

    • Acceleration Time

    • Price

    • Fuel Economy

    • Drivetrain

    • Engine Power


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Conjoint Analysis


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Engine Power


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Acceleration Time


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Fuel Economy


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Drivetrain


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Price


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Attribute Importance

Attribute Importance = (Attribute Utility Rage / Total Attribute Utility Range) x 100%


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Market Simulator

  • Uses individual results

    • Every participant simulated

  • Compares two products

    • Outputs comparative market share

    • Compare against current product

  • Leads to product price sensitivity


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Simulation


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Simulation - Results


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Hybrid Architectures

  • Series

  • Parallel

  • Combined (Series-Parallel)

  • Powersplit


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Fuel

ICE

Gen

ESD

M/G

Wheels

Series

  • 3 energy converters needed

  • Added weight is not going to increase performance

  • Not suitable for use in a racing car


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Fuel

ICE

Wheels

ESD

M/G

M

M

Parallel

  • Energy flow

    • Maximum acceleration

  • Parallel Hybrid

    • Increases available engine torque

  • Post Transmission Parallel

    • Drive through gear changes


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M

M

M

Parallel - cont

  • Through the Road Parallel

    • Drive through gear changes

    • Added traction

  • Four Wheel Drive Post Transmission

    • Drive through gear changes

    • Added traction


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Fuel

ICE

Gen

Wheels

ESD

M/G

M

M

Combined

  • Energy flow

    • Maximum Acceleration

    • Added complexity in control

  • Post Transmission Combined

    • Increase available engine torque

    • Drive through gear changes


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M

M

M

M

M

Combined - cont

  • Separate Axle Combined

    • Increase available engine torque

    • Drive through gear changes

    • Added traction

  • Four Wheel Drive Combined

    • Increase available engine torque

    • Drive through gear changes

    • Added traction


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Powersplit

  • Powersplit hybrid

    • Usually based around planetary gear set

    • Requires major modification of transmission

  • Does not fulfil project requirements


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Model Design

  • Models acceleration event (0-60mph)

  • Front engine – rear wheel drive layout

    • Engine and clutch model, with 1st order engine lag, flywheel and clutch inertia

    • Drivetrain, transmission and final drive, connected by flexible shafts, modelled as spring/dampers.

    • Non linear tyre model with longitudinal slip

    • Full body vehicle model with air resistance and angle of inclination

    • Weight transfer between front and rear axles

    • Driver model, designed to achieve maximum acceleration

    • Three electric motors connected to the engine, rear axle and front axle


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Model Validation


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Architecture Selection

  • Run with same motor specifications

    • 75kW, 240Nm, 59kg, 8000rpm max speed

    • Geared to reach 120mph

  • Acceleration run, 0 - 60mph

  • Simulated in new model Westfield

    • 1.6l Turbo Petrol Engine

    • Launched at Autosport International in January


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Architecture Selection


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Architecture Selection


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Architecture Selection

  • Architectures use 1,2 or three motor sets.

    • Additional motor sets add cost

  • Hybridisation Factor

    • HF = PEM/(PEM+PICE)

  • Benefit Factor

    • BF = (1-(THYBRID/TSTANDARD))/HF

      • (P = Power (kW), T= 0 – 60mph Time (s))


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Benefit Factors


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Battery Pack Power

  • Battery weight to be a minimum

    • Vehicle dynamics

  • Energy storage to be a minimum

    • Too much will be detrimental to enjoyment

  • Cost to be low

    • Batteries represent majority of system cost

  • Power should be high

    • How low can the battery pack power be?


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Battery Pack Power


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Conclusions

  • 2 Surveys carried out

    • Shown market potential for hybrid racing car

  • Through the road hybrid architecture

    • Maximum acceleration increased by 30%

    • Give best performance increase for cost

  • Battery pack can be decreased by 30%

    • Only 3.3% increase in acceleration time


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Thank you

Questions


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