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General Status of Building Energy Consumption in China: Survey and Comparison. Borong LIN, Dr. Associate Professor Building Energy Research Centre Tsinghua University, China Mar., 2008. Content. Chinese building energy consumption data Comparison between China & developed countries

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General status of building energy consumption in china survey and comparison l.jpg

General Status of Building Energy Consumption in China: Survey and Comparison

Borong LIN, Dr. Associate Professor

Building Energy Research Centre

Tsinghua University, China

Mar., 2008


Content l.jpg

Content

  • Chinese building energy consumption data

  • Comparison between China & developed countries

  • Stratagem to rising Chinese building energy efficiency


Chinese building energy consumption data l.jpg

Chinese building energy consumption data

  • Building energy investigation from 1995

  • Data source

    • China yearbook

    • On-site survey and statistics

  • Two dominating energy sources in bldg.

    • Coal Consumption

      • Heating in Buildings in North of China

    • Electricity Consumption

      • Rural

      • Urban


Survey on building energy consumption l.jpg

Survey on Building Energy consumption

Classify energy consumption for urban bldg.

Heating in Buildings in North of China

Energy consumption in buildings excluding heating

Residential Bldg.

Ordinary Commercial Bldg.

Large-scale Commercial Bldg.

Relating to Manufacture Procedure

Industrial bldg.

All Bldg. in China

Res. bldg. in rural area

70% is bio-energy

30% comm. energy

Civil bldg. in towns & cities

Major part


Bec in china breakdown l.jpg

BEC in China - Breakdown

Heating at

North China

Rural area

Heating at

Yangzi River

1%

Large-scale Commercial

4%

Residential building except heating

16%

Ordinary Commercial

19%

BEC in each sector

Building area in each sector


Current situation breakdown l.jpg

Current situation - Breakdown

BEC accounts for 25.5% of Total social terminal energy consumption in China


Building energy data from different countries l.jpg

Building energy data from different countries

Building energy data by per participant [kWh/(p.a)]

Building energy data by floor area [kWh/(m2.a)]

Comparisons

Data source: EIA 2005


Differences in bec l.jpg

Differences in BEC

  • Urban residential in China:

    • Less domestic hot water service

    • Difference in operation

    • High consumption in heating

  • Commercial buildings

    • High standard LCB: same level

    • Normal commercial: much lower

  • Rural residential in China:

    • 70% of energy are primary bio-energy

    • Much low living standard comparing


Bec comparison residential buildings l.jpg

BEC comparison- residential buildings


Bec in rural area l.jpg

BEC in rural area

  • 60% of total building area

    35% of BEC

    commercial energy 7.5~15kWh/m2.a

  • Commercial energy consumption: 1/3 of urban residents in terms of per m2

  • Primary bio-energy (firewood, corn stalk, etc.)

    takes a great portion (no accurate data)

  • No accurate data about primary energy, being investigated


Comparison between china urban us l.jpg

Comparison between China urban & US

  • Heating energy: same level

  • Electricity: large difference

Terminal energy converted to electricity equivalent

Data source: 2005 Buildings Energy Data Book, U.S. Department of Energy


Reasons for difference l.jpg

Reasons for difference

  • Different operation manner

    • Less domestic hot water consumption

      • Only 60% of families have hot water system

      • Less than 10% in total energy consumption

    • Part time part space AC

      • 2~3 rooms in 6 rooms run AC

      • Most of AC run less 200 hours per year

  • Economizing custom

    • lighting is well controlled manually


Energy comparison for residential kwh m 2 a l.jpg

Energy Comparison for Residential (kWh/m2.a)

中国此部分能耗水平是美国的1/4,日本的60%

About ¼ of USA and 60% of Japan.


Bec comparison heating in north china l.jpg

BEC comparison- Heating in North China


Heating energy comparison l.jpg

Heating Energy Comparison

Heating Energy consumption comparison

Field investigated heating energy data in Beijing

83kWh/m2a

Germany

France

Greece

Denmark

Beijing, China

Beijing VS. city of developed countries


Parameters of heating l.jpg

Parameters of heating

Factors on Heating

影响采暖能耗的参数

建筑构造

Building structure

运行性能

Operation

运行时间

Length operation

保温水平

Insulation

体型系数

Shape factor

渗风量

Infiltration

室内温度

Indoor temp.

Insulation

Shape factor

Infiltration

Operation

time

Indoor

temp.

Beijing: 120days

Northeast: 170

China

中国

Close window: 0.5~1/hr

Open window :3~10/hr

18~20℃

0.2~0.5

1

Any time

If needed

Europe

欧洲

18~22℃

>0.5

½ ~ 1/3

1~2 /hr

因此,中国采暖能耗并非是发达国家的2~3倍,而是基本差不多

Therefore, heating energy consumption level in China is similar to developed countries.


Bec comparison commercial buildings l.jpg

BEC comparison- commercial buildings


Ec in lcb l.jpg

EC in LCB

Data source: on-site survey by THU;

Dissertation, Xue Zhifeng, 2005

LCBs in Beijing

Shoppingmall

Hotel

Office

Government

LCBs worldwide


Comparison about lcb l.jpg

Comparison about LCB

(Energy for heating in

Chinese buildings excluded)

Data source:Environment Management for the Sustainable Building. Japan,2004


Case study in usa l.jpg

Case Study in USA

  • 1,3 million m2, Campus

  • Location: Philadelphia

  • distributed CHW System

    • Office Building

    • Laboratory

    • School Building

    • Hotels

    • Residential (few)


Energy consumption in campus buildings china us l.jpg

Energy consumption in campus buildings(China & US)

Office

4,650m2,34kWh/m2.a

Dental School

6,425m2,313kWh/m2.a

Lab & Office

3,360m2,56kWh/m2.a

School of Technology

27,000m2,64kWh/m2.a

Business School

30,000m2,356kWh/m2.a

School of Science

15,000m2,98kWh/m2.a


End use electricity l.jpg

End-use electricity

  • More than 50% used by HVAC

    • Fans in AHUs of Buildings

    • Pumps: primary, secondary

    • Chillers


Investigation l.jpg

Investigation

  • Reasons for high EC

    • Counteraction of cooling and heating

    • Longer running time-24h

    • Different indoor temp. setting 20℃ summer

  • Factors causing large difference in EC between commercial buildings

    • HVAC System

    • Operation manner

    • Less related to technology


Factors influence bec l.jpg

Factors influence BEC

Real building

Performance

Energy

(Good)

Building envelope

(Bad)

(Low)

Energy

Consumption

(High)

(High efficient)

System efficiency

(low efficient)

(Economized)

Operation mode

(Uneconomized


China s bec stratagem l.jpg

China’s BEC Stratagem


Main characteristics for bec in china l.jpg

Main characteristics for BEC in China

  • Current situation

    • Relative lower than the level of developed countries

    • Large difference between buildings

    • Heating is the largest part

  • Development

    • Growing rapidly with the development of economy and civilization

    • Energy efficiency work for China

      • Big challenge

      • Different way from developed countries

      • Economizing custom should be called for


Prediction of bec in china in 2020 considering improvement of urbanization and living condition l.jpg

Prediction of BEC in China in 2020 (Considering improvement of urbanization and living condition)


Prediction of bec in china in 2020 l.jpg

Prediction of BEC in China in 2020

Energy source: <International Energy Outlook 2005>


Big challenge for china l.jpg

Big challenge for China:

  • Demand

    • Keeping Economic Growth

    • Improving living conditions

  • Limitation

    • Energy Supply to meet the requirement

    • GHGs Emission and Climate Change Responsibility

  • Different way from developed countries

    • Find a unique approach and contribute to the world


Key points of bee works in china l.jpg

Key Points of BEE Works in China

  • Reduce EC for large-scaled commercial building

    • by new tech, strict evaluation and LC Commissioning to new buildings, and improving management, operation and control in existing buildings

  • Improve living conditions for rural area

    • by developing a sustainable approach to improve the living standard

  • Improve service quality for residential & ordinary Com.

    • by promoting high energy efficiency appliances and keeping energy-saving habits

  • Reduce EC for heating

    • by adding additional insulation and improving system efficiency

  • Satisfy the indoor environment demand in Yangtze River area with low EC

    • by developing new heating and cooling technologies and strategies


Conclusion l.jpg

Conclusion

  • Energy consumption is related with complicated matters including: building fabric, energy utilization efficiency, living and operation mode

  • Commercial buildings

  • Residential buildings

  • Building energy development in a distinct way is a big challenge for China and the world


Thank you for your attention l.jpg

Thank you for your attention

Borong LIN

linbr@tsinghua.edu.cn

Tsinghua University


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