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General Status of Building Energy Consumption in China: Survey and Comparison. Borong LIN, Dr. Associate Professor Building Energy Research Centre Tsinghua University, China Mar., 2008. Content. Chinese building energy consumption data Comparison between China & developed countries

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General status of building energy consumption in china survey and comparison l.jpg

General Status of Building Energy Consumption in China: Survey and Comparison

Borong LIN, Dr. Associate Professor

Building Energy Research Centre

Tsinghua University, China

Mar., 2008


Content l.jpg
Content Survey and Comparison

  • Chinese building energy consumption data

  • Comparison between China & developed countries

  • Stratagem to rising Chinese building energy efficiency


Chinese building energy consumption data l.jpg
Chinese building energy consumption data Survey and Comparison

  • Building energy investigation from 1995

  • Data source

    • China yearbook

    • On-site survey and statistics

  • Two dominating energy sources in bldg.

    • Coal Consumption

      • Heating in Buildings in North of China

    • Electricity Consumption

      • Rural

      • Urban


Survey on building energy consumption l.jpg
Survey on Building Energy consumption Survey and Comparison

Classify energy consumption for urban bldg.

Heating in Buildings in North of China

Energy consumption in buildings excluding heating

Residential Bldg.

Ordinary Commercial Bldg.

Large-scale Commercial Bldg.

Relating to Manufacture Procedure

Industrial bldg.

All Bldg. in China

Res. bldg. in rural area

70% is bio-energy

30% comm. energy

Civil bldg. in towns & cities

Major part


Bec in china breakdown l.jpg
BEC in China - Breakdown Survey and Comparison

Heating at

North China

Rural area

Heating at

Yangzi River

1%

Large-scale Commercial

4%

Residential building except heating

16%

Ordinary Commercial

19%

BEC in each sector

Building area in each sector


Current situation breakdown l.jpg
Current situation - Breakdown Survey and Comparison

BEC accounts for 25.5% of Total social terminal energy consumption in China


Building energy data from different countries l.jpg
Building energy data from different countries Survey and Comparison

Building energy data by per participant [kWh/(p.a)]

Building energy data by floor area [kWh/(m2.a)]

Comparisons

Data source: EIA 2005


Differences in bec l.jpg
Differences in BEC Survey and Comparison

  • Urban residential in China:

    • Less domestic hot water service

    • Difference in operation

    • High consumption in heating

  • Commercial buildings

    • High standard LCB: same level

    • Normal commercial: much lower

  • Rural residential in China:

    • 70% of energy are primary bio-energy

    • Much low living standard comparing


Bec comparison residential buildings l.jpg

BEC comparison Survey and Comparison- residential buildings


Bec in rural area l.jpg
BEC in rural area Survey and Comparison

  • 60% of total building area

    35% of BEC

    commercial energy 7.5~15kWh/m2.a

  • Commercial energy consumption: 1/3 of urban residents in terms of per m2

  • Primary bio-energy (firewood, corn stalk, etc.)

    takes a great portion (no accurate data)

  • No accurate data about primary energy, being investigated


Comparison between china urban us l.jpg
Comparison between Survey and ComparisonChina urban & US

  • Heating energy: same level

  • Electricity: large difference

Terminal energy converted to electricity equivalent

Data source: 2005 Buildings Energy Data Book, U.S. Department of Energy


Reasons for difference l.jpg
Reasons for difference Survey and Comparison

  • Different operation manner

    • Less domestic hot water consumption

      • Only 60% of families have hot water system

      • Less than 10% in total energy consumption

    • Part time part space AC

      • 2~3 rooms in 6 rooms run AC

      • Most of AC run less 200 hours per year

  • Economizing custom

    • lighting is well controlled manually


Energy comparison for residential kwh m 2 a l.jpg
Energy Comparison for Residential (kWh/m Survey and Comparison2.a)

中国此部分能耗水平是美国的1/4,日本的60%

About ¼ of USA and 60% of Japan.


Bec comparison heating in north china l.jpg

BEC comparison Survey and Comparison- Heating in North China


Heating energy comparison l.jpg
Heating Energy Comparison Survey and Comparison

Heating Energy consumption comparison

Field investigated heating energy data in Beijing

83kWh/m2a

Germany

France

Greece

Denmark

Beijing, China

Beijing VS. city of developed countries


Parameters of heating l.jpg
Parameters of heating Survey and Comparison

Factors on Heating

影响采暖能耗的参数

建筑构造

Building structure

运行性能

Operation

运行时间

Length operation

保温水平

Insulation

体型系数

Shape factor

渗风量

Infiltration

室内温度

Indoor temp.

Insulation

Shape factor

Infiltration

Operation

time

Indoor

temp.

Beijing: 120days

Northeast: 170

China

中国

Close window: 0.5~1/hr

Open window :3~10/hr

18~20℃

0.2~0.5

1

Any time

If needed

Europe

欧洲

18~22℃

>0.5

½ ~ 1/3

1~2 /hr

因此,中国采暖能耗并非是发达国家的2~3倍,而是基本差不多

Therefore, heating energy consumption level in China is similar to developed countries.


Bec comparison commercial buildings l.jpg

BEC comparison Survey and Comparison- commercial buildings


Ec in lcb l.jpg
EC in LCB Survey and Comparison

Data source: on-site survey by THU;

Dissertation, Xue Zhifeng, 2005

LCBs in Beijing

Shoppingmall

Hotel

Office

Government

LCBs worldwide


Comparison about lcb l.jpg
Comparison about LCB Survey and Comparison

(Energy for heating in

Chinese buildings excluded)

Data source:Environment Management for the Sustainable Building. Japan,2004


Case study in usa l.jpg
Case Study in USA Survey and Comparison

  • 1,3 million m2, Campus

  • Location: Philadelphia

  • distributed CHW System

    • Office Building

    • Laboratory

    • School Building

    • Hotels

    • Residential (few)


Energy consumption in campus buildings china us l.jpg
Energy consumption in campus buildings Survey and Comparison(China & US)

Office

4,650m2,34kWh/m2.a

Dental School

6,425m2,313kWh/m2.a

Lab & Office

3,360m2,56kWh/m2.a

School of Technology

27,000m2,64kWh/m2.a

Business School

30,000m2,356kWh/m2.a

School of Science

15,000m2,98kWh/m2.a


End use electricity l.jpg
End-use electricity Survey and Comparison

  • More than 50% used by HVAC

    • Fans in AHUs of Buildings

    • Pumps: primary, secondary

    • Chillers


Investigation l.jpg
Investigation Survey and Comparison

  • Reasons for high EC

    • Counteraction of cooling and heating

    • Longer running time-24h

    • Different indoor temp. setting 20℃ summer

  • Factors causing large difference in EC between commercial buildings

    • HVAC System

    • Operation manner

    • Less related to technology


Factors influence bec l.jpg
Factors influence BEC Survey and Comparison

Real building

Performance

Energy

(Good)

Building envelope

(Bad)

(Low)

Energy

Consumption

(High)

(High efficient)

System efficiency

(low efficient)

(Economized)

Operation mode

(Uneconomized


China s bec stratagem l.jpg

China’s BEC Stratagem Survey and Comparison


Main characteristics for bec in china l.jpg
Main characteristics for BEC in China Survey and Comparison

  • Current situation

    • Relative lower than the level of developed countries

    • Large difference between buildings

    • Heating is the largest part

  • Development

    • Growing rapidly with the development of economy and civilization

    • Energy efficiency work for China

      • Big challenge

      • Different way from developed countries

      • Economizing custom should be called for



Prediction of bec in china in 2020 l.jpg
Prediction of BEC in China in 2020 of urbanization and living condition)

Energy source: <International Energy Outlook 2005>


Big challenge for china l.jpg
Big challenge for China: of urbanization and living condition)

  • Demand

    • Keeping Economic Growth

    • Improving living conditions

  • Limitation

    • Energy Supply to meet the requirement

    • GHGs Emission and Climate Change Responsibility

  • Different way from developed countries

    • Find a unique approach and contribute to the world


Key points of bee works in china l.jpg
Key Points of BEE Works in China of urbanization and living condition)

  • Reduce EC for large-scaled commercial building

    • by new tech, strict evaluation and LC Commissioning to new buildings, and improving management, operation and control in existing buildings

  • Improve living conditions for rural area

    • by developing a sustainable approach to improve the living standard

  • Improve service quality for residential & ordinary Com.

    • by promoting high energy efficiency appliances and keeping energy-saving habits

  • Reduce EC for heating

    • by adding additional insulation and improving system efficiency

  • Satisfy the indoor environment demand in Yangtze River area with low EC

    • by developing new heating and cooling technologies and strategies


Conclusion l.jpg
Conclusion of urbanization and living condition)

  • Energy consumption is related with complicated matters including: building fabric, energy utilization efficiency, living and operation mode

  • Commercial buildings

  • Residential buildings

  • Building energy development in a distinct way is a big challenge for China and the world


Thank you for your attention l.jpg

Thank you of urbanization and living condition)for your attention

Borong LIN

[email protected]

Tsinghua University


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