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General Status of Building Energy Consumption in China: Survey and Comparison. Borong LIN, Dr. Associate Professor Building Energy Research Centre Tsinghua University, China Mar., 2008. Content. Chinese building energy consumption data Comparison between China & developed countries

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general status of building energy consumption in china survey and comparison

General Status of Building Energy Consumption in China: Survey and Comparison

Borong LIN, Dr. Associate Professor

Building Energy Research Centre

Tsinghua University, China

Mar., 2008

content
Content
  • Chinese building energy consumption data
  • Comparison between China & developed countries
  • Stratagem to rising Chinese building energy efficiency
chinese building energy consumption data
Chinese building energy consumption data
  • Building energy investigation from 1995
  • Data source
    • China yearbook
    • On-site survey and statistics
  • Two dominating energy sources in bldg.
    • Coal Consumption
      • Heating in Buildings in North of China
    • Electricity Consumption
      • Rural
      • Urban
survey on building energy consumption
Survey on Building Energy consumption

Classify energy consumption for urban bldg.

Heating in Buildings in North of China

Energy consumption in buildings excluding heating

Residential Bldg.

Ordinary Commercial Bldg.

Large-scale Commercial Bldg.

Relating to Manufacture Procedure

Industrial bldg.

All Bldg. in China

Res. bldg. in rural area

70% is bio-energy

30% comm. energy

Civil bldg. in towns & cities

Major part

bec in china breakdown
BEC in China - Breakdown

Heating at

North China

Rural area

Heating at

Yangzi River

1%

Large-scale Commercial

4%

Residential building except heating

16%

Ordinary Commercial

19%

BEC in each sector

Building area in each sector

current situation breakdown
Current situation - Breakdown

BEC accounts for 25.5% of Total social terminal energy consumption in China

building energy data from different countries
Building energy data from different countries

Building energy data by per participant [kWh/(p.a)]

Building energy data by floor area [kWh/(m2.a)]

Comparisons

Data source: EIA 2005

differences in bec
Differences in BEC
  • Urban residential in China:
    • Less domestic hot water service
    • Difference in operation
    • High consumption in heating
  • Commercial buildings
    • High standard LCB: same level
    • Normal commercial: much lower
  • Rural residential in China:
    • 70% of energy are primary bio-energy
    • Much low living standard comparing
bec in rural area
BEC in rural area
  • 60% of total building area

35% of BEC

commercial energy 7.5~15kWh/m2.a

  • Commercial energy consumption: 1/3 of urban residents in terms of per m2
  • Primary bio-energy (firewood, corn stalk, etc.)

takes a great portion (no accurate data)

  • No accurate data about primary energy, being investigated
comparison between china urban us
Comparison between China urban & US
  • Heating energy: same level
  • Electricity: large difference

Terminal energy converted to electricity equivalent

Data source: 2005 Buildings Energy Data Book, U.S. Department of Energy

reasons for difference
Reasons for difference
  • Different operation manner
    • Less domestic hot water consumption
      • Only 60% of families have hot water system
      • Less than 10% in total energy consumption
    • Part time part space AC
      • 2~3 rooms in 6 rooms run AC
      • Most of AC run less 200 hours per year
  • Economizing custom
    • lighting is well controlled manually
energy comparison for residential kwh m 2 a
Energy Comparison for Residential (kWh/m2.a)

中国此部分能耗水平是美国的1/4,日本的60%

About ¼ of USA and 60% of Japan.

heating energy comparison
Heating Energy Comparison

Heating Energy consumption comparison

Field investigated heating energy data in Beijing

83kWh/m2a

Germany

France

Greece

Denmark

Beijing, China

Beijing VS. city of developed countries

parameters of heating
Parameters of heating

Factors on Heating

影响采暖能耗的参数

建筑构造

Building structure

运行性能

Operation

运行时间

Length operation

保温水平

Insulation

体型系数

Shape factor

渗风量

Infiltration

室内温度

Indoor temp.

Insulation

Shape factor

Infiltration

Operation

time

Indoor

temp.

Beijing: 120days

Northeast: 170

China

中国

Close window: 0.5~1/hr

Open window :3~10/hr

18~20℃

0.2~0.5

1

Any time

If needed

Europe

欧洲

18~22℃

>0.5

½ ~ 1/3

1~2 /hr

因此,中国采暖能耗并非是发达国家的2~3倍,而是基本差不多

Therefore, heating energy consumption level in China is similar to developed countries.

ec in lcb
EC in LCB

Data source: on-site survey by THU;

Dissertation, Xue Zhifeng, 2005

LCBs in Beijing

Shoppingmall

Hotel

Office

Government

LCBs worldwide

comparison about lcb
Comparison about LCB

(Energy for heating in

Chinese buildings excluded)

Data source:Environment Management for the Sustainable Building. Japan,2004

case study in usa
Case Study in USA
  • 1,3 million m2, Campus
  • Location: Philadelphia
  • distributed CHW System
    • Office Building
    • Laboratory
    • School Building
    • Hotels
    • Residential (few)
energy consumption in campus buildings china us
Energy consumption in campus buildings(China & US)

Office

4,650m2,34kWh/m2.a

Dental School

6,425m2,313kWh/m2.a

Lab & Office

3,360m2,56kWh/m2.a

School of Technology

27,000m2,64kWh/m2.a

Business School

30,000m2,356kWh/m2.a

School of Science

15,000m2,98kWh/m2.a

end use electricity
End-use electricity
  • More than 50% used by HVAC
    • Fans in AHUs of Buildings
    • Pumps: primary, secondary
    • Chillers
investigation
Investigation
  • Reasons for high EC
    • Counteraction of cooling and heating
    • Longer running time-24h
    • Different indoor temp. setting 20℃ summer
  • Factors causing large difference in EC between commercial buildings
    • HVAC System
    • Operation manner
    • Less related to technology
factors influence bec
Factors influence BEC

Real building

Performance

Energy

(Good)

Building envelope

(Bad)

(Low)

Energy

Consumption

(High)

(High efficient)

System efficiency

(low efficient)

(Economized)

Operation mode

(Uneconomized

main characteristics for bec in china
Main characteristics for BEC in China
  • Current situation
    • Relative lower than the level of developed countries
    • Large difference between buildings
    • Heating is the largest part
  • Development
    • Growing rapidly with the development of economy and civilization
    • Energy efficiency work for China
      • Big challenge
      • Different way from developed countries
      • Economizing custom should be called for
prediction of bec in china in 2020
Prediction of BEC in China in 2020

Energy source: <International Energy Outlook 2005>

big challenge for china
Big challenge for China:
  • Demand
    • Keeping Economic Growth
    • Improving living conditions
  • Limitation
    • Energy Supply to meet the requirement
    • GHGs Emission and Climate Change Responsibility
  • Different way from developed countries
    • Find a unique approach and contribute to the world
key points of bee works in china
Key Points of BEE Works in China
  • Reduce EC for large-scaled commercial building
    • by new tech, strict evaluation and LC Commissioning to new buildings, and improving management, operation and control in existing buildings
  • Improve living conditions for rural area
    • by developing a sustainable approach to improve the living standard
  • Improve service quality for residential & ordinary Com.
    • by promoting high energy efficiency appliances and keeping energy-saving habits
  • Reduce EC for heating
    • by adding additional insulation and improving system efficiency
  • Satisfy the indoor environment demand in Yangtze River area with low EC
    • by developing new heating and cooling technologies and strategies
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Energy consumption is related with complicated matters including: building fabric, energy utilization efficiency, living and operation mode
  • Commercial buildings
  • Residential buildings
  • Building energy development in a distinct way is a big challenge for China and the world
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