GCSE PHYSICAL EDUCATION. REVISION GUIDE . Reasons for taking part in activity. Reasons for taking part in activity. Health is: “a state of complete mental, physical and social well being, and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity”
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“a state of complete mental, physical and social well being, and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity”
Can be accomplished by: immunisation, balanced diet, exercise, social interaction.Health, fitness and exercise performance
“The ability to meet the demands of the environment”.
“how well a task is completed”
“a form of physical activity done primarily to improve ones health and physical fitness”.
“the ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time”
“The amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance”
“The ability to use voluntary muscles many times without getting tired”
“The range of movement possible at a joint”
“The percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle and bone”
“the ability to change the position of the body quickly and to control the movement of the whole body”
“the ability to retain the centre of mass (gravity) of the body above the base of support with reference to static – stationary – or dynamic changing conditions of movement, shape and orientation”
“the ability to use two or more body parts together”
“the ability to do strength performances quickly.
Power = Strength x Speed
“The time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of a movement”
“the differential rate an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a short period of time”
FibreDiet, Health and Hygiene
composition as fat
Characteristics: Fatness, round body shape, large build.
Effect on sport: often not suited to endurance events, most commonly found in events requiring large body mass and strength, such as sumo.Diet, Health and Hygiene
Characteristics: muscular, broad shoulders, triangular body shape
Effect on sport: Most sportsmen are mesomrophs as most sports require strength and power. Strongmen and sprinters are good examples.Diet, Health and Hygiene
Characteristics: Thin, lean, low body fat levels
Effect on sport: often found competing in endurance events such as the marathon and sports requiring a light body such as jockeyDiet, Health and Hygiene
“doing specific types of activity or exercise to build specific body parts”
“starting slowly and gradually increasing the amount of exercise done”
“Fitness can only be improved through training more than you normally do”
“any adaptation that takes place as a consequence of training will be reversed when you stop training”
Low end target zone is 60% of 200 bpm = 120 bpm
Top end target zone is 80% of 200 bpm = 160 bpm
Therefore the target zone is 120 – 160 bpmMethods of Training
Any sustained activity requiring increased breathing and oxygen consumption
Aerobic activities normally last for a minute or more
Increases cardio - vascular fitness and efficiency of respiratory system
E.g. long distance running
Anaerobic (without air) activity
Anaerobic activities are high intensity activities over a short period of time
They only last for 40 second or so, even the fittest athletes cannot work at this intensity for longer
Examples include 100m sprintMethods of Training
To the body
From the body
From the lungs
The left side
blood to the rest of
the body for use.
The right side pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen.
Blood flows around the body in a ‘figure of eight’ circuit, passing through the heart twice on each circuit. Hence the name the Double Pump System.
There are 2 separate ‘loops’ to the circuit:
The top loop – carries blood from the heart to the lungs and back.
The bottom loop – carries blood from the heart to all over the body and back.The Circulatory system
Heart rate is:
“The number of times the heart beats each minute”
“the volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction”
“the amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute”
Blood structure: Plasma circuit, passing through the heart twice on each circuit. Hence the name the Double Pump System.
It is the liquid part of the blood
Its functions include transporting:The Circulatory system
Transporting carbon dioxide away from cells to the lungs for removal from the body.
Glucose from the small intestine to the cells for use in energy production.
Other waste products away from cells for removal from the body, e.g. urea and heat when the body is hot.
Engulfing any invading microbes, defending the body from disease.
Producing antibodies which help the body attack disease.
Clump together when blood vessels are damaged and help to clog a ‘meshwork’ of fibres which create a clot, to help stop bleeding.
In order to do this, red blood cells contain Haemoglobin, which combines with oxygen to become Oxyhaemoglobin.
Collect and carry oxygen to all the cells of the body so they can create energy.
Inspiration circuit, passing through the heart twice on each circuit. Hence the name the Double Pump System.
The intercostal muscles contract pulling the rib cage up and out
Diaphragm contracts causing it to flatten
Chest cavity gets larger causing pressure in the lungs to fall
Air moves into the lungs from the higher outside pressureThe Respiratory System
Air flowing in
Air flowing outward
Red blood cells
Oxygen 16% circuit, passing through the heart twice on each circuit. Hence the name the Double Pump System.
Oxygen 20.95 %
Carbon Dioxide 0.04%
Carbon Dioxide 4.0%
Water vapour 0.01%
Water vapour 1%The Respiratory System
Exhale air out of the
“The volume of air you breath in and out in one breath”
“the maximum amount of air you can breathe out after breathing in as much air as possible”
“the amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above that which would have ordinarily been consumed in the same time at rest (this results in a shortfall in the oxygen available)
2. Short – Small Levers.
Eg Carpals, tarsals.
3. Flat – Protecting bones.
Cranium, patella, ribs etc..
4. Irregular – More protection.
Eg Vertebrae, protect the spinal cord.
Bone forms part of our lean body mass, which relate to weight and can affect performance (Diet and Nutrition Year 10).
Bone determines size of body and length of limb, rugby players, gymnasts, high jumpers.
Bones influences Body Composition and can therefore influence participation and performance in Sport.Bones
“a place were two bones meet”
Hold and rotate the shoulders and also move the head back and sideways.
In the centre of the chest at the back of the body, spreading up.
Pull your arms down at the shoulders and back behind your back.
At the back of the body, either side of the chest.
At the top of each arm at the back.
Straighten the arms at the elbow.
In the upper part of the body, covering the shoulders.
Raise the arms in all directions at the shoulders.
At the top of each arm at the front.
Bend the arms at the elbows.
At the top of each leg at the front.
Straighten the legs at the knees.
Raise the arms up, sideways and across the chest at the shoulders.
In the upper part of the chest at the front.
At the front of the body in the middle, just below the chest.
Pull in the abdomen and bend the spine so you can bend forward.
Agonist or Prime Mover
Can only work for short periods
Ideal for Sprinters
Can work for long periods
Ideal for Marathon Runners
Another way to make sport safe is to try to level the competition by grading competitors in various ways:
is the R.I.C.E. principle.