fate modeling soil transport of heavy metal emissions from landfills to the groundwater
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International Waste Management and LCA Session C Prague, April 15-16, 2004. Fate modeling: Soil transport of heavy metal emissions from landfills to the groundwater . Stefanie Hellweg , Ulrich Fischer, Thomas Hofstetter, Konrad Hungerbühler.

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fate modeling soil transport of heavy metal emissions from landfills to the groundwater

International Waste Management and LCA

Session C

Prague, April 15-16, 2004

Fate modeling:Soil transport of heavy metal emissions from landfills to the groundwater 

Stefanie Hellweg, Ulrich Fischer, Thomas Hofstetter, Konrad Hungerbühler

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich Safety and Environmental Technology Group

slide2

The goal was to provide a method for assessing the fate of heavy metals in soil.

Small ca-pacity for adsorption

Homogeneously

low permeability

Distance to water:

 2 m

< 2 m

Infiltration rate:

 400 mm/a

< 400 mm/a

Soil

layer

Macropore

flow

Large ca-pacity for adsorption

High per-meability at some spots

pH > 6

 2 m

< 2 m

Matrix

flow

Small ca-pacity for adsorption

pH  6

Large ca-pacity for adsorption

Steps

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3a Step 3b Step 4 Step 5

Safety and Environmental Technology Group

slide3

FIELD STUDIES

9

7

Transport rate

(mm/year)

5

3

1

0

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12.0

Retention indicator

The retardation of heavy metal cations in the soil matrix was estimated.

Steps

Results

Step 1 Step 2 Step 3a Step 3b Step 4 Step 5

Retention indicator

(matrix flow) and

transport rate

RETENTION INDICATOR (excerpt)

RI depends on pH, type of metal, content of organic material, …

Safety and Environmental Technology Group

slide4

Application of the method to landfill sites

Cd2+, site A

Tons / year / kg waste

Cd2+, site B

Tons / year / kg waste

Time (years)

slide5

Results and conclusions

  • A simplified method was developed for the fate assessment of heavy metals in soil/rock.
  • The method can be used to estimatetransport rates/times or to define partition rate constants for multimedia fate models.
  • The influence of spatial variablity was large in case studies.
  • The uncertainties of the model calculations are high.

Safety and Environmental Technology Group

slide6

Hellweg, S, Fischer, U, Hofstetter, TB, Hungerbühler, K: Site-dependent fate assessment in LCA: transport of heavy metals in soil, Journal of Cleaner Production, in press (2004)

slide8

Application of the method to landfill sites

Example

Evapotranspiration (40%)

Surface run-off (35%)

Leaching (25%)

Gravel/sand

~ 10 m

~ 2 m

Moraine

Limestone

0%

Macropore

flow

Soil at

site A

50%

High per-meability at some spots

Distance to groundwater:

> 2 m

pH > 7,

small

capacity for adsorption

0%

100%

100%

100%

Infiltration rate:

125 mm / y

Matrix

flow

50%

100%

0%

125 mm/y

macropore flow

Retention indicator Cd: 5.5

Transport rate Cd:

7 mm/y

Transport time Cd:

900-1400 y

Safety and Environmental Technology Group

slide9

Air

Upper soil layer (top 30 cm)

Deep soil layers (below 30 cm)

Fresh

water

Groundwater

Sediments

Integration of the method in multimedia fate models.

  • Description of a hypothetical “typical” European site
  • Calculation of heavy metal transport rates at this site
  • Definition of rate constants (input to multimedia models)

Safety and Environmental Technology Group

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