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Fashion A Standard 6 08.0101-06 Basics of Textiles. Created by: Kris Caldwell Timpanogos High School (There is also a powerpoint created by “Fashion Marketing” for this Standard). Fabrics and Fibers. Fabrics: Long pieces of cloth

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Fashion a standard 6 08 0101 06 basics of textiles l.jpg

Fashion AStandard 6 08.0101-06Basics of Textiles

Created by: Kris Caldwell

Timpanogos High School

(There is also a powerpoint created by “Fashion Marketing” for this Standard)

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Fabrics and Fibers

  • Fabrics: Long pieces of cloth

  • Fibers: Thin, hairlike strands that are the basic units used to make fabrics and textile products

  • Yarns: Uninterrupted threads of textile fibers that are ready to be turned into fabrics.

  • Natural Fibers: Textile fibers made from plants and animals

  • Filament: Very long, fine, continuous thread

  • Manufactured fibers: Fibers created by a manufacturing process of any substance that is not a fiber.

  • Denier: A unit of measurement used to identify the thickness or diameter of a fiber

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Natural Fibers

  • Cotton: Comes from the bolls, or seed pods, of cotton plants

    Advantages: Comfortable, absorbent, good color retention, dyes and prints well, washable, strong, drapes well, easy to handle and sew, inexpensive

    Disadvantages: Shrinks in hot water, wrinkles easily, weakened by perspiration and sun, burns easily, affected by mildew

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Natural Fibers

  • Linen: Made from flax fibers, from the flax plant

    Advantages: Strong, comfortable, hand-washable or dry-cleanable, absorbent, dyes and prints well, resists dirt and stains, durable, withstands high heat, lint-free

    Disadvantages: Wrinkles easily, Can be expensive, shrinks, burns easily, affected by mildew and perspiration, difficult to remove creases, shines if ironed

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Natural Fibers

  • Wool: Come from the sheared, or shaved, hair of sheep or lambs.

    Advantages: Warm, lightweight, wrinkle-resistant, absorbent, dyes well, comfortable, durable, creases well, easy to tailor, recyclable

    Disadvantages: Affected by moths, shrinks with heat and moisture, needs special care, dry cleaning, absorbs odors, scratchy on skin, weakens when wet, harmed by bleach and perspiration

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Natural Fibers

  • Silk: Filament fibers from the cocoon of silkworms.

    Advantages: Soft, drapes well, dyes and prints well, very strong, lightweight, resists soil, mildew and moths, comfortable, absorbent

    Disadvantages: Expensive, needs special care, dry cleaning, stains with water, yellows with age, weakened by perspiration, sun and soap, attacked by insects

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Manufactured Fibers

  • Rayon: First manufactured fiber, made of cellulose

    Advantages: soft and comfortable, drapes well, durable, highly absorbent, dyes and prints well, no static or pilling problems, inexpensive, colorfast, may be washable

    Disadvantages: wrinkles easily unless treated, low resiliency, heat sensitive, susceptible to mildew, stretches, weakens when wet, fabric shrinks if washed, may need dry cleaning

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Manufactured Fibers

  • Nylon: First synthetic fiber invented

    Advantages: Lightweight, exceptional strength, abrasion resistant, easy to wash, resists shrinkage and wrinkles, resilient and pleat retentive

    Disadvantages: Static and pilling, poor resistance to sunlight, low absorbency, picks up oils and dyes in wash, heat sensitive

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Manufactured Fibers

  • Acrylic: Resembles wool

    Advantages: Lightweight, soft, warm, wool-like hand, dyes to bright colors, machine washable, quick drying, resilient, retains shape, resists shrinkage, resists wrinkling, can be cotton-like or wool-like in appearance, excellent pleat retention, resists moths and oil and chemicals

    Disadvantages: Low absorbency, develops static, pilling, heat sensitive, weak, dissolved by nail polish remover (acetone)

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Manufactured Fibers

  • Polyester: Most widely sold synthetic fiber in the world.

    Advantages: Strong, crisp-but soft hand, resists stretching and shrinkage, washable or dry-cleanable, quick drying, resilient, resists wrinkles, abrasion resistant, resistant to most chemicals, colorfast, strong, durable, dyes well

    Disadvantages: Holds oily stains, low absorbency, difficult stain removal, static and pilling problems

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Types of Weaves

  • Plain Weave: Most common, simplest weave. Filling threads go over and under warp threads. Warp and filling threads are same denier. Looks the same on both sides. Examples: gingham, muslin, poplin, broadcloth.

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Types of Weaves

  • Twill Weave: A yarn in one direction floats over two or more yarns in the other direction. Makes a diagonal pattern. Ex: Denim, twill.

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Types of Weaves

  • Satin Weave: Has long yarn floats on the surface, going over 4 or more opposite yarns. Has a smooth, shiny surface. Example: Satin

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Knitted Fabric

  • Knitting: Method of making fabric by looping yarns together. One yarn can form an entire fabric.