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Dynamic Resource Management in a Static Network Operating System Kevin Klues et. al. Presented By - Jay Abstract Novel resource management approaches. Static allocation of resources. Compile Time Virtualization of resources. Dynamic management. Keywords Resource Management

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Dynamic Resource Management in a Static Network Operating System

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Dynamic resource management in a static network operating system l.jpg

Dynamic Resource Management in a Static Network Operating System

Kevin Klues et. al.

Presented By - Jay


Abstract l.jpg

Abstract

Novel resource management approaches.

Static allocation of resources.

Compile Time Virtualization of resources.

Dynamic management.


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Keywords


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Resource Management

Principal challenge.

Paper presents a novel architecture for resource management.

Dynamically Management between statically allocated resources and fixed no. of clients.

    Different from traditional model of dynamic clients and dynamic memory allocation.


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Other frameworks

Mantis: Lightweight threads

SOS : Dynamic allocation, dynamic callbacks

Contiki : pure event driven in a thread like abstraction


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Redwood Tree monitoring

Monitored pressure and humidity of 2 redwood trees.

Used Mica motes and TinyOS 1.0

Period of 6 weeks and collect one reading from 4 sensors every 5 minutes. Write to flash and send to PC over multi hop.

100 nodes used, only 33 worked, 67 died.

Some of the ad-hoc approaches used formed the basis of the research work of the paper.


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Resource Management - Design

Good system abstractions have 3 basic properties

    Flexible, small no of abstractions

    Simplify application programming

    Efficient.


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Memory

Static memory management vs. Dynamic memory management.

    Static advantages:

        Weak type checking   

        Simple and efficient

    Dynamic advantages:

        More flexible, may lead to access errors

TinyOS : static allocation of memory vs. Others who follow dynamic. Mantis has 6 bytes overhead for every allocated block, Contiki uses the best-fit-freelist allocator, SOS is highly inefficient.


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Energy

chip and peripheral devices power states.

    on motes, most of the peripheral devices have only 2 power states - on / off.

    micro controller has two power states - active and sleep

In TinyOS, telosb platform, sleep mode power consumption can be lowered to 2microA. Contiki can go low up to 75 micro A, SOS sits in busy loop (bad), Mantis uses idle state when all threads are blocked.


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Peripheral devices

Managing access and powering off.

Sharing can be done using Turn based sharing or using Virtualized.

TinyOS uses virtualized timers.

SOS has no mechanism for sharing resources.

Mantis uses a mutex.


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Dynamic Management in a static OS

Memory

Allocate Statically, Manage Dynamically

    Memory objects are of know size in static allocation.

    Overrun and underrun errors are rare.

    SAFE-Code project.

    Use Buffer swapping.


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Buffer Swapping


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Energy

 On TinyOS , for peripherals, simple interface with stop and start commands

microcontroller power management is more complicated.

Achieved in 3 ways:

    Compute mcuPowerState based on what Peripherals are on

    Application need to set dirtyMcuState if they affect MCU

    Hooks for application to specify a specific state.


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Peripherals

T2: Virtualized or Shared

Exception of Timer, all Virtualized Services are built on top of Shared with access controlled by Arbiters.

Arbiters provide following interfaces:

    Resource

    ResourceRequested

    ResourceConfigure

    ArbiterInfo

Arbiter Types: First come first served, Round robin


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Power Manager


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Evaluation - Memory


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Evaluation - Energy


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Evaluation - Peripherals


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Conclusion

 Designed to make writing applications simpler while maintaining performance and achieving better energy efficiency.

    Memory and PD, static allocation and compile time virtualization is used. At runtime, ownership is passed between clients removing the burden from application programmer.

    Energy efficiency is achieved by automatically controlling the the power state of both microcontroller and all its PDs.


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