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Conditional Cash Transfers and Gender Vulnerabilities in Latin America – case studies for Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru Long-Term Social Protection for Inclusive Growth: A Policy Dialogue and Learning Event, Johannesburg, October 12, 2010 Fabio Veras Soares – IPC-IG (UNDP/SAE/IPEA).
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Conditional Cash Transfers and Gender Vulnerabilities in Latin America – case studies for Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru
While significant progress has been made towards gender equality, including parity in education and increased levels of economic and political participation...
... more women than men live in poverty, gendered wage disparities persist, and women face higher burdens of domestic and caring responsibilities, high levels of teenage pregnancy and domestic violence.CONTEXT: Gender inequities in Latin America
… its place in the social protection system: permanent welfare policy or short-term safety netCCT and Gender vulnerabilities
Potential impacts of the transfers on women’s labour supply and economic autonomy:
1) need to comply with co-responsibilities demands time from mothers and can reduce time available to work.
2) co-responsibility related to school attendance can also reduce child labour which can lead mothers to compensate for that loss splitting their time in both home and market work.
3) transfer can be used to boost investments at the household level, particularly, for CCT programmes that have complementary programmes and in the rural areas.Impact CCTs
Bolsa Familia: beneficiary women were more likely to participate in the labour market (MDS, 2007). However, others piece of evidence have shown that beneficiary women also tend to reduce worked hours and to increase time spent on domestic chores (Teixeira, 2010 and Tavares, 2008).
Familias en Acción in Colombia had an effect of increasing occupation among women in urban areas without affecting worked hours (Econometría, 2006).
Chile Solidario also seems to have a positive impact on adult labour supply, married women and rural areas (Galasso, 2006).
Juntos had no impact on women’s employment rate or hours worked (Perova & Vakis, 2009)Impact CCTs
Some quantitative evaluations have also looked at women’s bargaining power through an index based on a combination of variables related to decision-making process within the household.
Bolsa Familia: beneficiaries of the programme were more likely to have a higher female bargaining power index than non-beneficiary households (MDS, 2007).
Familias en Acción: the impact evaluation did not find any impact on female bargaining power (Econometría, 2006).Impact CCTs