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Aves. Read 632-642 Hw 644 #1-21 Work on NR 5. Reminder. Aves are in the phylum Chordata (vertebrata) Aves is a CLASS. Aves. Examples: Gulls, penguins, albatross, parrots, doves, etc Are warm-blooded (endotherm/homeotherm) winged Lay eggs Bipedal (walks on 2 legs). Characteristics.

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Aves

Read 632-642

Hw 644 #1-21

Work on NR 5


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Reminder

  • Aves are in the phylum Chordata (vertebrata)

  • Aves is a CLASS


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Aves

  • Examples:

    • Gulls, penguins, albatross, parrots, doves, etc

  • Are warm-blooded (endotherm/homeotherm)

  • winged

  • Lay eggs

  • Bipedal (walks on 2 legs)


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Characteristics

  • 4 chambered heart

  • Contain unique digestive and respiratory systems adapted for flight.

  • Excretion is done using a cloaca

  • Brain is highly specialized and some are considered extremely intelligent

  • Lightweight skeleton

  • Toothless beak

  • Hard shelled eggs

  • feathers


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Reproduction

  • Sexual

    • All lay eggs

    • Internal fertilization using cloaca

    • Males are ZZ and females are ZW (a system where the ovum determines sex, not the sperm)

    • Typically monogamous & perform biparental care

    • Yolk of a bird egg is larger than a reptile egg


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Unique traits

  • Hollow bones

  • Crop and gizzard for grinding of food due to lack of teeth

  • High metabolism to aid flight energy

  • 75% of air intake bypasses the lungs and are then used during exhalation

  • Most have poor sense of smell

  • Highly complex mating rituals

  • Non-Darwinian selection


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Crop & Gizzard

  • Also found in insects.

    • Why in birds and insects but not other animals?

      • Lack of teeth reduces ability to mechanically break down food.


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Hollow bones

  • Bones are as strong and can make up as little as 5% of the total body weight of a bird.

    • Human skeleton makes up about 14% of our total weight.


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Historical birds

  • Earliest “bird” is Archaeopteryx

  • Some extinct species include:

    • Dodo

    • Moa

    • Terror birds


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Major Orders

  • Evolutionary Milestone: feathers

  • Within class Aves are many (~27) orders:

    • Some examples are:

      • Falconiformes

      • Passeriformes

      • Casuariiformes

      • Podicipediformes

      • Piciformes

      • Ciconiiformes


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